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Considerable evidence has emerged supporting the neuroprotective and cognition-preserving effects of estrogen, but these benefits are complicated by the evidence that estrogen increases the risk of certain cancers. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) that specifically target the brain while avoiding peripheral organs offer a way to allow the(More)
A degree-day (DD) model of West Nile virus capable of forecasting real-time transmission risk in the continental United States of America up to one week in advance using a 50-km grid is available online at https://sites. google.com/site/arbovirusmap/. Daily averages of historical risk based on temperatures for 1994-2003 are available at 10km resolution.(More)
We investigated the role of nitric oxide (NO) in learning and memory formation in a radial maze test, by using the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), and an NO precursor, L-arginine. Rats were trained on a working and reference memory task in an eight arm radial maze for 30 days, wherein the(More)
This study examined the effects of sigma(1) receptor agonist SA4503 and neuroactive steroids dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), pregnenolone sulfate (PREGS) and progesterone (PROG) on spatial working and reference memory in a radial arm maze task in rats. The insertion of a 6-min delay between the 2nd and 3rd choices caused a specific decline in(More)
The present paper is to examine whether liquiritigenin is able to attenuate the Alzheimer's-like learning and memory deficits in a transgenic (Tg) mouse model that over-expresses amyloid protein precursor (APP), and explores the underlying mechanisms. Consistent with our previous observations, we found that treatment with liquiritigenin improved the(More)
We investigated the effects of okadaic acid (OA), a specific inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A, on spatial memory and neuronal survival in rats. Rats were initially trained on a spatial memory task in an eight arm radial maze. Spatial reference and working memory was impaired 1 day after the unilateral microinjection of OA into the dorsal(More)
In a distributed multiuser game, entities need to communicate their state information to other entities. Usually only a subset of the game's entities are interested in information being disseminated by a n y particular entity. In a large scale distributed game with many machines interconnected by a wide-area network, broadcasting messages containing each(More)
This study examined the effects of the sigma receptor ligands (+)-N-allylnormetazocine ((+)-SKF10,047) and 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenethyl)-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazine dihydrochloride (SA4503) on dizocilpine-induced impairment of working and reference memory in a radial arm maze task in rats. Dizocilpine, a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, significantly(More)
In order to extend capability of spiking neural P systems (SN P systems) to represent fuzzy knowledge and further to process fuzzy information, we propose an extended spiking neural P system in this paper, called fuzzy spiking neural P system (FSN P system). In the FSN P system, two types of neurons (fuzzy proposition neuron and fuzzy rule neuron), certain(More)
West Nile virus (Flaviviridae: Flavivirus) is a serious infectious disease that recently spread across the North America continent. A spatial analysis tool was developed on the ArcMap 9.x platform to estimate potential West Nile virus activity using a spatially explicit degree-day model. The model identifies when the virus Extrinsic Incubation Period (EIP)(More)