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Considerable evidence has emerged supporting the neuroprotective and cognition-preserving effects of estrogen, but these benefits are complicated by the evidence that estrogen increases the risk of certain cancers. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) that specifically target the brain while avoiding peripheral organs offer a way to allow the(More)
We investigated the role of nitric oxide (NO) in learning and memory formation in a radial maze test, by using the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), and an NO precursor, L-arginine. Rats were trained on a working and reference memory task in an eight arm radial maze for 30 days, wherein the(More)
This study examined the effects of sigma(1) receptor agonist SA4503 and neuroactive steroids dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), pregnenolone sulfate (PREGS) and progesterone (PROG) on spatial working and reference memory in a radial arm maze task in rats. The insertion of a 6-min delay between the 2nd and 3rd choices caused a specific decline in(More)
In a distributed multiuser game, entities need to communicate their state information to other entities. Usually only a subset of the game's entities are interested in information being disseminated by a n y particular entity. In a large scale distributed game with many machines interconnected by a wide-area network, broadcasting messages containing each(More)
This study examined the effects of the sigma receptor ligands (+)-N-allylnormetazocine ((+)-SKF10,047) and 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenethyl)-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazine dihydrochloride (SA4503) on dizocilpine-induced impairment of working and reference memory in a radial arm maze task in rats. Dizocilpine, a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, significantly(More)
In order to extend capability of spiking neural P systems (SN P systems) to represent fuzzy knowledge and further to process fuzzy information, we propose an extended spiking neural P system in this paper, called fuzzy spiking neural P system (FSN P system). In the FSN P system, two types of neurons (fuzzy proposition neuron and fuzzy rule neuron), certain(More)
We investigated the effects of okadaic acid (OA), a specific inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A, on spatial memory and neuronal survival in rats. Rats were initially trained on a spatial memory task in an eight arm radial maze. Spatial reference and working memory was impaired 1 day after the unilateral microinjection of OA into the dorsal(More)
Peer-to-peer systems contain a collection of equivalent entities that form an application-layer overlay network. Each entity acts as client, server, and overlay network router. Peer-to-peer systems enable the rapid development of distributed applications; in short order, peer-to-peer file sharing has become one of the most popular Internet applications.(More)
1 In the present study, we examined whether deprivation of oestrogens by ovariectomy could modify learning and memory deficits caused by a continuous intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta), the major constituent of senile plaques in AD. 2 Neither long-term (3 months) nor short-term (1 month), deprivation of oestrogens by(More)