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We developed a chemical route to produce graphene nanoribbons (GNR) with width below 10 nanometers, as well as single ribbons with varying widths along their lengths or containing lattice-defined graphene junctions for potential molecular electronics. The GNRs were solution-phase-derived, stably suspended in solvents with noncovalent polymer(More)
Deficiency in fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) results in fragile X syndrome (FXS), an inherited form of intellectual disability. Despite extensive research, it is unclear how FMRP deficiency contributes to the cognitive deficits in FXS. Fmrp-null mice show reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis. As Fmrp is also enriched in mature neurons, we(More)
Until recently, celiac disease (CD) was felt to be a rare disease in the United States. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the prevalence of CD in general Western populations and in populations at high risk for CD. Standard systematic review methodology was used. A literature search was conducted in MEDLINE (1966 to October 2003)(More)
Metallic and semiconducting carbon nanotubes generally coexist in as-grown materials. We present a gas-phase plasma hydrocarbonation reaction to selectively etch and gasify metallic nanotubes, retaining the semiconducting nanotubes in near-pristine form. With this process, 100% of purely semiconducting nanotubes were obtained and connected in parallel for(More)
Immunoglobulin-like transcripts are a family of inhibitory and stimulatory cell surface immune receptors. Transcripts for one member of this family, ILT7, are selectively expressed in human plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). We demonstrate here that ILT7 protein associates with the signal adapter protein Fc epsilonRI gamma to form a receptor complex.(More)
BACKGROUND Fetal alcohol exposure affects 1 in 100 children making it the leading cause of mental retardation in the US. It has long been known that alcohol affects cerebellum development and function. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We demonstrate that CREB binding protein (CBP) is widely expressed(More)
Fragile X syndrome (FXS), a common inherited form of intellectual disability with learning deficits, results from a loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Despite extensive research, treatment options for FXS remain limited. Since FMRP is known to play an important role in adult hippocampal neurogenesis and hippocampus-dependent learning and(More)
Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) are materials with properties distinct from those of other carbon allotropes. The all-semiconducting nature of sub-10-nm GNRs could bypass the problem of the extreme chirality dependence of the metal or semiconductor nature of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in future electronics. Currently, making GNRs using lithographic, chemical or(More)
Clinicians are increasingly utilizing noninvasive serologic tests for the diagnosis and screening of celiac disease (CD). The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the diagnostic performance of serologic tests for the diagnosis and screening of CD. Standard systematic review methodology was used. A literature search was conducted in(More)
The secreted glycoprotein sclerostin has recently emerged as a key negative regulator of Wnt signaling in bone and has stimulated considerable interest as a potential target for therapeutics designed to treat conditions associated with low bone mass, such as osteoporosis. We have determined the structure of sclerostin, which resulted in the identification(More)