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In the developing frog visual system, topographic refinement of the retinotectal projection depends on electrical activity. In vivo whole-cell recording from developing Xenopus tectal neurons shows that convergent retinotectal synapses undergo activity-dependent cooperation and competition following correlated pre- and postsynaptic spiking within a narrow(More)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), the archetypal multipotent progenitor cells derived in cultures of developed organs, are of unknown identity and native distribution. We have prospectively identified perivascular cells, principally pericytes, in multiple human organs including skeletal muscle, pancreas, adipose tissue, and placenta, on CD146, NG2, and(More)
The direction of frequency-modulated (FM) sweeps is an important temporal cue in animal and human communication. FM direction-selective neurons are found in the primary auditory cortex (A1), but their topography and the mechanisms underlying their selectivity remain largely unknown. Here we report that in the rat A1, direction selectivity is topographically(More)
The 2014 malaria epidemiological data reported through the annual malaria statistics reporting system were collected and analyzed. A total of 3 078 malaria cases were reported in 680 counties of 30 Provinces/ Municipalities/Autonomous Regions (P/M/A)(except Inner Mongolia) in 2014, decreased by 25.4% compared with the 4 128 cases in 2013. The incidence rate(More)
This study demonstrates that the adult form of 'tonotopic maps' of sound frequency in the rat primary auditory cortex (A1) arises from parallel developmental processes involving two cortical zones: the progressive differentiation and refinement of selectively tone-responsive receptive fields within an initially broadly-tuned posterior zone, and the(More)
By impairing both function and survival, the severe reduction in oxygen availability associated with high-altitude environments is likely to act as an agent of natural selection. We used genomic and candidate gene approaches to search for evidence of such genetic selection. First, a genome-wide allelic differentiation scan (GWADS) comparing indigenous(More)
Cortical inhibition plays an important role in shaping neuronal processing. The underlying synaptic mechanisms remain controversial. Here, in vivo whole-cell recordings from neurons in the rat primary auditory cortex revealed that the frequency tuning curve of inhibitory input was broader than that of excitatory input. This results in relatively stronger(More)
Synaptic inhibition plays an important role in shaping receptive field (RF) properties in the visual cortex. However, the underlying mechanisms remain not well understood, partly because of difficulties in systematically studying functional properties of cortical inhibitory neurons in vivo. Here, we established two-photon imaging guided cell-attached(More)
Neurons in the recipient layers of sensory cortices receive excitatory input from two major sources: the feedforward thalamocortical and recurrent intracortical inputs. To address their respective functional roles, we developed a new method for silencing cortex by competitively activating GABA(A) while blocking GABA(B) receptors. In the rat primary auditory(More)
During development of the visual system, the pattern of visual inputs may have an instructive role in refining developing neural circuits. How visual inputs of specific spatiotemporal patterns shape the circuit development remains largely unknown. We report here that, in the developing Xenopus retinotectal system, the receptive field of tectal neurons can(More)