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Research in autophagy continues to accelerate,(1) and as a result many new scientists are entering the field. Accordingly, it is important to establish a standard set of criteria for monitoring macroautophagy in different organisms. Recent reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose.(2,3) There are many useful and(More)
Caspases play a central role in apoptosis, a well-studied pathway of programmed cell death. Other programs of death potentially involving necrosis and autophagy may exist, but their relation to apoptosis and mechanisms of regulation remains unclear. We define a new molecular pathway in which activation of the receptor-interacting protein (a serine-threonine(More)
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process by which cytoplasmic proteins and organelles are catabolized. During starvation, the protein TOR (target of rapamycin), a nutrient-responsive kinase, is inhibited, and this induces autophagy. In autophagy, double-membrane autophagosomes envelop and sequester intracellular components and then fuse with(More)
In this paper, the global exponential stability analysis problem is considered for a class of recurrent neural networks (RNNs) with time delays and Markovian jumping parameters. The jumping parameters considered here are generated from a continuous-time discrete-state homogeneous Markov process, which are governed by a Markov process with discrete and(More)
Cultured human hepatocytes are a valuable in vitro system for evaluating new molecular entities as inducers of cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes. The present study summarizes data obtained from 62 preparations of cultured human hepatocytes that were treated with vehicles (saline or dimethylsulfoxide, 0.1%), beta-naphthoflavone (33 microM), phenobarbital (100(More)
CpG islands frequently contain gene promoters or exons and are usually unmethylated in normal cells. Methylation of CpG islands is associated with delayed replication, condensed chromatin and inhibition of transcription initiation. The investigation of aberrant CpG-island methylation in human cancer has primarily taken a candidate gene approach, and has(More)
The proteasome was validated as an oncology target following the clinical success of VELCADE (bortezomib) for injection for the treatment of multiple myeloma and recurring mantle cell lymphoma. Consequently, several groups are pursuing the development of additional small-molecule proteasome inhibitors for both hematologic and solid tumor indications. Here,(More)
Autophagy is a lysosome-based degradation pathway. During autophagy, lysosomes fuse with autophagosomes to form autolysosomes. Following starvation-induced autophagy, nascent lysosomes are formed from autolysosomal membranes through an evolutionarily conserved cellular process, autophagic lysosome reformation (ALR), which is critical for maintaining(More)
Phylogenetic relationships among 37 living species of order Carnivora spanning a relatively broad range of divergence times and taxonomic levels were examined using nuclear sequence data from exon 1 of the IRBP gene (approximately 1.3 kb) and first intron of the TTR gene (approximately 1 kb). These data were used to analyze carnivoran phylogeny at the(More)
Autophagy plays a central role in regulating important cellular functions such as cell survival during starvation and control of infectious pathogens. Recently, it has been shown that autophagy can induce cells to die; however, the mechanism of the autophagic cell death program is unclear. We now show that caspase inhibition leading to cell death by means(More)