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Exercise benefits a variety of organ systems in mammals, and some of the best-recognized effects of exercise on muscle are mediated by the transcriptional co-activator PPAR-γ co-activator-1 α (PGC1-α). Here we show in mouse that PGC1-α expression in muscle stimulates an increase in expression of FNDC5, a membrane protein that is cleaved and secreted as a(More)
Brown fat generates heat via the mitochondrial uncoupling protein UCP1, defending against hypothermia and obesity. Recent data suggest that there are two distinct types of brown fat: classical brown fat derived from a myf-5 cellular lineage and UCP1-positive cells that emerge in white fat from a non-myf-5 lineage. Here, we report the isolation of "beige"(More)
The worldwide epidemic of obesity has increased the urgency to develop a deeper understanding of physiological systems related to energy balance and energy storage, including the mechanisms controlling the development of fat cells (adipocytes). The differentiation of committed preadipocytes to adipocytes is controlled by PPARgamma and several other(More)
1 Introduction Individuals have distinctive ways of speaking and writing, and there exists a long history of linguistic and stylistic investigation into authorship attribution. In recent years, practical applications for authorship attribution have grown in areas such as intelligence (linking intercepted messages to each other and to known terrorists),(More)
Although both monocytes and macrophages possess essential requirements for HIV-1 entry, peripheral blood monocytes are infrequently infected with HIV-1 in vivo and in vitro. In contrast, tissue macrophages and monocyte-derived macrophages in vitro are highly susceptible to infection with HIV-1 R5 tropic strains. We investigated intracellular anti-HIV-1(More)
A clear relationship exists between visceral obesity and type 2 diabetes, whereas subcutaneous obesity is comparatively benign. Here, we show that adipocyte-specific deletion of the coregulatory protein PRDM16 caused minimal effects on classical brown fat but markedly inhibited beige adipocyte function in subcutaneous fat following cold exposure or(More)
BACKGROUND CD56(+) T cells are abundant in liver and play an important role in host innate immunity against viral infections, including hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, a common infection among heroin abusers. We thus investigated the in vivo impact of heroin use or heroin use plus HCV infection on the CD56(+) T cell frequency and function. (More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an essential role in initiating intracellular type I interferon (IFN)-mediated innate immunity against viral infections. We examined whether human neuronal cells (primary human neurons, NT2-N and CHP-212 cells) express TLRs and mount type I IFN-mediated innate immunity against herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infection. Human(More)
Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) recognizes double-stranded RNA and induces type I interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral immunity against a number of viral infections. Type III IFN (IFN-λ) is a newly identified antiviral cytokine that has biological functions similar to those of type I IFNs. We thus investigated the role of IFN-λ in TLR3 activation-mediated(More)
PGC1α is a key transcriptional coregulator of oxidative metabolism and thermogenesis. Through a high-throughput chemical screen, we found that molecules antagonizing the TRPVs (transient receptor potential vanilloid), a family of ion channels, induced PGC1α expression in adipocytes. In particular, TRPV4 negatively regulated the expression of PGC1α, UCP1,(More)