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Many high level representations of time series have been proposed for data mining, including Fourier transforms, wavelets, eigenwaves, piecewise polynomial models, etc. Many researchers have also considered symbolic representations of time series, noting that such representations would potentiality allow researchers to avail of the wealth of data structures(More)
Many algorithms have been proposed for the problem of time series classification. However, it is clear that one-nearest-neighbor with Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) distance is exceptionally difficult to beat. This approach has one weakness, however; it is computationally too demanding for many realtime applications. One way to mitigate this problem is to speed(More)
The matching of two-dimensional shapes is an important problem with applications in domains as diverse as biometrics, industry, medicine and anthropology. The distance measure used must be invariant to many distortions, including scale, offset, noise, partial occlusion, etc. Most of these distortions are relatively easy to handle, either in the(More)
Density estimation is a costly operation for computing distribution information of data sets underlying many important data mining applications, such as clustering and biased sampling. However, traditional density estimation methods are inapplicable for streaming data, which are continuous arriving large volume of data, because of their request for linear(More)
Over the past three decades, there has been a great deal of research on shape analysis, focusing mostly on shape indexing, clustering, and classification. In this work, we introduce the new problem of finding shape discords, the most unusual shapes in a collection. We motivate the problem by considering the utility of shape discords in diverse domains(More)
BACKGROUND In Western countries depression is the most common psychiatric condition in older persons and related to low socioeconomic status and low social supports. Along with social deprivation, the rural communities in China retain many Chinese traditions that involve high levels of social supports. Studying such a population might offer insights into(More)
Shape matching and indexing is important topic in its own right, and is a fundamental subroutine in most shape data mining algorithms. Given the ubiquity of shape, shape matching is an important problem with applications in domains as diverse as biometrics, industry, medicine, zoology and anthropology. The distance/similarity measure for used for shape(More)
BACKGROUND Glucocorticoids have adverse systemic effects, including obesity, hypertension, and hyperglycemia, that may predispose to cardiovascular disease. The effect of glucocorticoid use on cardiovascular disease has not been quantified. OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that users of exogenous glucocorticoids have an increased risk for cardiovascular(More)
AIM To examine whether exposure to pioglitazone use is associated with increased incidence of bladder cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHOD A cohort study was done in the General Practice Research Database (GPRD) between 2001 and 2010. Two hundred and seven thousand seven hundred and fourteen patients aged ≥40 years with type 2 diabetes(More)