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One of the major limitations in the use of genetically modified mice for studying cognitive functions is the lack of regional and temporal control of gene function. To overcome these limitations, a forebrain-specific promoter was combined with the tetracycline transactivator system to achieve both regional and temporal control of transgene expression.(More)
Axonal cytoskeletal and cytosolic proteins are synthesized in the neuronal cell body and transported along axons by slow axonal transport, but attempts to observe this movement directly in living cells have yielded conflicting results. Here we report the direct observation of the axonal transport of neurofilament protein tagged with green fluorescent(More)
Theories of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia have implicated the hippocampus, but controversy remains regarding hippocampal abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia. In vivo studies of hippocampal anatomy using high resolution magnetic resonance scanning and manual methods for volumetric measurement have yielded inconclusive results, perhaps because(More)
Structural deformity of the hippocampus is characteristic of individuals with very mild and mild forms of dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT). The purpose of this study was to determine whether a similar deformity of the hippocampus can predict the onset of dementia in nondemented elders. Using high dimensional diffeomorphic transformations of a(More)
Recent evidence suggests that mammalian cysteine proteases related to Caenorhabditis elegans CED-3 are key components of mammalian programmed cell death or apoptosis. We have shown recently that the CPP32 and Mch2 alpha cysteine proteases cleave the apoptotic markers poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and lamins, respectively. Here we report the cloning of(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE We tested the hypothesis that intravenous infusion of bone marrow derived-marrow stromal cells (MSCs) enter the brain and reduce neurological functional deficits after stroke in rats. METHODS Rats (n=32) were subjected to 2 hours of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Test groups consisted of MCAO alone (group 1, n=6);(More)
OBJECTIVE To test the effect of i.v.-injected human bone marrow stromal cells (hMSC) on neurologic functional deficits after stroke in rats. METHODS Rats were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion and IV injected with 3 x 10(6) hMSC 1 day after stroke. Functional outcome was measured before and 1, 7, and 14 days after stroke. Mixed(More)
Recent MRI studies in multiple sclerosis have highlighted the potential importance of spinal cord atrophy (implicating axonal loss) in the development of disability. However, the techniques applied in these initial studies have poor reproducibility which limits their application in the serial monitoring of patients. The aim of this study was to develop a(More)
In five patients with mesial temporal sclerosis, the authors verified the precision and reproducibility of hippocampal segmentations with deformation-based magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The overall percentage overlap between automated segmentations was 92.8% (SD, 3.5%), between manual segmentations was 73.1% (SD, 9.5%), and between automated and manual(More)
Most people hold beliefs about personality characteristics typical of members of their own and others' cultures. These perceptions of national character may be generalizations from personal experience, stereotypes with a "kernel of truth," or inaccurate stereotypes. We obtained national character ratings of 3989 people from 49 cultures and compared them(More)