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BACKGROUND Excess body burden of uric acid promotes gout. Diminished renal clearance of uric acid causes hyperuricemia in most patients with gout, and the renal urate transporter (URAT)1 is important for regulation of serum uric acid (sUA) levels. The URAT1 inhibitors probenecid and benzbromarone are used as gout therapies; however, their use is limited by(More)
Ribavirin, part of the current first line combination therapy for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C, may cause haemolytic anaemia and poses a significant challenge to the clinical management of the disease. Viramidine, a prodrug of ribavirin, is currently under development. In-vitro partition demonstrated that viramidine had less association with RBCs(More)
The RAS-RAF-mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK)-ERK pathway provides numerous opportunities for targeted oncology therapeutics. In particular, the MEK enzyme is attractive due to high selectivity for its target ERK and the central role that activated ERK plays in driving cell proliferation. The(More)
Ribavirin, part of the current first-line combination therapy for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C, has side effects-in particular, hemolytic anemia-that is frequently dose limiting. Based on animal studies, viramidine, a prodrug of ribavirin, is converted to ribavirin in the liver. Viramidine dosing yielded 50% higher ribavirin levels in the monkey(More)
The pharmacokinetics of pradefovir and adefovir, 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl) adenine (PMEA), was evaluated in healthy male volunteers after oral dosing of pradefovir (10, 30, or 60 mg). Pradefovir was absorbed rapidly. The maximum serum concentration, the area under the concentration-time curve between 0 and 96 hours after dosing (AUC(0-96)), and the area(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacodynamics (PDs), pharmacokinetics (PKs) and safety of lesinurad (selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor) in combination with febuxostat (xanthine oxidase inhibitor) in patients with gout. METHODS This study was a phase IB, multicentre, open-label, multiple-dose study of gout patients with(More)
Viramidine is a prodrug of ribavirin. To facilitate pharmacokinetics studies of viramidine in man, a sensitive and specific LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous analyses of viramidine and ribavirin in human plasma was developed and validated. The method involved the addition of [13C]viramidine and [13C]ribavirin as internal standards, protein precipitation(More)
The disposition and metabolic profiles of [14C]viramidine and [14C]ribavirin were compared in rat and monkey red blood cells and liver. Our data reveal that the total ribavirin-related components (ribavirin plus its mono-, di-, and triphosphate metabolites) may account for most of the drug in monkey liver following prolonged oral administration of(More)
The current study was carried out to evaluate pharmacokinetic profiles of viramidine and ribavirin in patients (n = 8 per dose group) with compensated hepatitis C infection following oral dosing of viramidine (400, 600, or 800 mg bid for 4 weeks). Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined on days 1 and 29 based on plasma, red blood cell, and urine(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of BAY 86-9766, a selective, potent, orally available, small-molecule allosteric inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase 1/2 in patients with advanced solid tumors. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN BAY 86-9766 was administered orally daily in 28-day courses, with doses escalated to establish(More)