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Cochlear hair cells are a terminally differentiated cell population that is crucial for hearing. Although recent work suggests that there are hair cell progenitors in postnatal mammalian cochleae, isolation and culture of pure hair cell progenitors from a well-defined cochlear area have not been reported. Here we present an experimental method that allows(More)
Spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) are poorly regenerated in the mammalian inner ear. Because of this, stem cell transplantation has been used to replace injured SGNs, and several studies have addressed this approach. However, the difficulty of delivering stem cells into the cochlea and encouraging their migration to Rosenthal's canal (RC), where the SGNs are(More)
T-cell activation and dysfunction relies on direct and modulated receptors. Based on their functional outcome, co-signaling molecules can be divided as co-stimulators and co-inhibitors, which positively and negatively control the priming, growth, differentiation and functional maturation of a T-cell response. We are beginning to understand the power of(More)
ST segment is the most important diagnostic parameter for finding coronary heart disease (CHD). Based on ST segment which has been extracted from electrocardiogram (ECG) data with wavelet transform, we investigated the classification of five different shapes of ST segment using fuzzy adaptive resonance theory mapping (ARTMAP) neural networks. The proposed(More)
Recently, many studies have reported that the SNP+45(T>G) and SNP+276(G>T) polymorphisms in the adiponectin gene are associated with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in the Chinese Han population. However, the previous studies yielded many conflicting results. Thus, a meta-analysis of the association of the adiponectin gene with T2DM in the Chinese Han population is(More)
BACKGROUND Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious health problem in Tibet where Tibetans are the major ethnic group. Although genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) isolates is a valuable tool for TB control, our knowledge of population structure of M. tuberculosis circulating in Tibet is limited. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS In our study, a(More)
End-to-End guaranteed network QoS is a requirement for predictable data transfers between geographically distant end-hosts. Existing QoS systems, however, do not have the capability/intelligence to decide what resources to reserve and which paths to choose when there are multiple and <i>flexible</i> resource reservation requests. In this paper, we design(More)
BACKGROUND The safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a monovalent intranasal 2009 A/H1N1 live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) were evaluated in children and adults. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies were completed in children (2-17 y) and adults (18-49 y). Subjects were assigned 4:1 to receive 2(More)
To elucidate the characteristics of T-cell receptor (TCR) signal transduction in T-cells from acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the mucosa-associated-lymphoid-tissue lymphoma-translocation gene 1 (MALT1), A20, NF-κB and MALT1-V1 gene expression levels in CD3+ T cells sorted from the peripheral blood of patients with AML were analyzed by real-time PCR. A(More)