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Deregulated production of IL-17 and IL-21 plays a key pathogenic role in many autoimmune disorders. A delineation of the mechanisms that underlie the inappropriate synthesis of IL-17 and IL-21 in autoimmune diseases can thus provide important insights into potential therapies for these disorders. Here we have shown that the serine-threonine kinase(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) must achieve a critical balance between activation and tolerance, a process influenced by cytokines and growth factors. IL-10, which transduces signals through Stat3, has emerged as one important negative regulator of DC activation. To directly examine the role Stat3 plays in regulating DC activity, the Stat3 gene was targeted for(More)
Many proteins are known to undergo small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) modification by an E1-, E2-, and E3-dependent ligation process. Recognition that protein inhibitor of activated signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) (PIAS) proteins are SUMO E3 ligases raised the possibility that STATs may also be regulated by SUMO modification.(More)
Numerous studies have implicated C-reactive protein (CRP) and the acute phase response (APR) in the development of atherosclerotic heart disease. Interleukin (IL)-6, which regulates both CRP expression and the APR, has also been identified as a risk factor for heart disease. To more directly evaluate the role of IL-6 in the development of atherosclerosis,(More)
Scavenger receptors (ScRs) are a structurally unrelated family of receptors with the ability to bind modified low density lipoprotein (LDL) as well as a broad range of polyanionic ligands. CD68, whose expression is restricted to mononuclear phagocytes, is a unique ScR family member, owing to its lysosome associated membrane protein (LAMP)-like domain and(More)
The transcription factor NF-kappaB is an important regulator of homeostatic growth and inflammation. Although gene-targeting studies have revealed important roles for NF-kappaB, they have been complicated by component redundancy and lethal phenotypes. To examine the role of NF-kappaB in endothelial tissues, Tie2 promoter/enhancer-IkappaBalpha(S32A/S36A)(More)
Panaxydol (PND) is one of the main non-peptidyl small molecules isolated from the lipophilic fractions of Panax notoginseng. The present study was carried out to demonstrate the potential effects of panaxydol on the induction of differentiation of human liver carcinoma cell lines SMMC-7721. Cell viability was evaluated by MTT method and Trypan blue(More)
In this paper, we present a scheme whereby diverse optimization algorithms are incorporated within a framework of selective reproduction according to fitness. By forming an ensemble of several populated optimization algorithms, it is shown that the exploitative traits can be extended across several search algorithms. Results of simulations on several(More)
A meme in the context of optimization represents a unit of algorithmic abstraction that dictates how solution search is carried out. At a higher level, a meta-meme serves as an encapsulation of the scheme of interplay between memes involved in the search process. This paper puts forth the notion of neural meta-memes to extend the collective capacity of(More)