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We report that the many Eph-related receptor tyrosine kinases, and their numerous membrane-bound ligands, can each be grouped into only two major specificity subclasses. Receptors in a given subclass bind most members of a corresponding ligand subclass. The physiological relevance of these groupings is suggested by viewing the collective distributions of(More)
Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) supports motor neuron survival in vitro and in mouse models of motor neuron degeneration and was considered a candidate for the muscle-derived neurotrophic activity that regulates motor neuron survival during development. However, CNTF expression is very low in the embryo, and CNTF gene mutations in mice or human do not(More)
Vascular development depends on the highly coordinated actions of a variety of angiogenic regulators, most of which apparently act downstream of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). One potential such regulator is delta-like 4 ligand (Dll4), a recently identified partner for the Notch receptors. We generated mice in which the Dll4 gene was replaced(More)
Aspergillus oryzae, an important filamentous fungus used in food fermentation and the enzyme industry, has been shown through genome sequencing and various other tools to have prominent features in its genomic composition. However, the functional complexity of the A. oryzae transcriptome has not yet been fully elucidated. Here, we applied direct(More)
CD4 T follicular helper (TFH) cells interact with and stimulate the generation of antigen-specific B cells. TFH cell interaction with B cells correlates with production of SIV-specific immunoglobulins. However, the fate of TFH cells and their participation in SIV-induced antibody production is not well understood. We investigated the phenotype, function,(More)
The vasculature of the CNS is structurally and functionally distinct from that of other organ systems and is particularly prone to developmental abnormalities and hemorrhage. Although other embryonic tissues undergo primary vascularization, the developing nervous system is unique in that it is secondarily vascularized by sprouting angiogenesis from a(More)
MR tagging is considered as a valuable technique to evaluate regional myocardial function quantitatively and noninvasively, however the cumbersome and time-consuming post-processing procedures for cardiac motion tracking still hinder its application to routine clinical examination. We present a fast and semiautomatic method for tracking 3D cardiac motion(More)
Development of the vascular system depends on the highly coordinated actions of a variety of angiogenic regulators. Several of these regulators are members of the tyrosine kinase superfamily, including VEGF receptors and angiopoietin receptors, Tie1 and Tie2. Tyrosine kinase signaling is counter-regulated by the activity of tyrosine phosphatases, including(More)
Aspergillus oryzae AS 3.951 is widely used in Chinese soy sauce manufacture, but little is known about the profiles of the extracellular proteins from the culture of soybean koji. In this study, we carried out MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analysis of extracellular proteins during koji culture. Besides well-known proteins (TAA and Oryzin), a variety of aminopeptidase(More)
Adjuvants are critical for the success of vaccines. Agonists of microbial pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are promising new adjuvant candidates. A mechanism through which adjuvants enhance immune responses is to stimulate innate immunity. We studied the innate immune response in humans to synthetic double-stranded RNA (polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid(More)