Learn More
BACKGROUND Up-to-date information on the causes of child deaths is crucial to guide global efforts to improve child survival. We report new estimates for 2008 of the major causes of death in children younger than 5 years. METHODS We used multicause proportionate mortality models to estimate deaths in neonates aged 0-27 days and children aged 1-59 months,(More)
The RAS/RAF signaling pathway is an important mediator of tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis. The novel bi-aryl urea BAY 43-9006 is a potent inhibitor of Raf-1, a member of the RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway. Additional characterization showed that BAY 43-9006 suppresses both wild-type and V599E mutant BRAF activity in vitro. In addition, BAY 43-9006(More)
BACKGROUND Information about the distribution of causes of and time trends for child mortality should be periodically updated. We report the latest estimates of causes of child mortality in 2010 with time trends since 2000. METHODS Updated total numbers of deaths in children aged 0-27 days and 1-59 months were applied to the corresponding country-specific(More)
Diarrhoea and pneumonia are the leading infectious causes of childhood morbidity and mortality. We comprehensively reviewed the epidemiology of childhood diarrhoea and pneumonia in 2010-11 to inform the planning of integrated control programmes for both illnesses. We estimated that, in 2010, there were 1·731 billion episodes of diarrhoea (36 million of(More)
Malignant astrocytoma, the most prevalent primary brain tumor, is resistant to all known therapies and frequently harbors mutations that inactivate p53 and activate Ras signaling. We have generated mouse strains that lack p53 and harbor a conditional allele of the NF1 tumor suppressor that negatively regulates Ras signaling. The mice develop malignant(More)
Angiogenesis and signaling through the RAF/mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK)/ERK cascade have been reported to play important roles in the development of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). Sorafenib (BAY 43-9006, Nexavar) is a multikinase inhibitor with activity against Raf kinase and several receptor tyrosine(More)
The miR-34 family members are direct transcriptional targets of tumor suppressor p53, and loss of miR-34 function can impair p53-mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. A potentially functional SNP rs4938723 (T > C) was found in the promoter region of pri-miR-34b/c (423 bp from the transcription start site), located in the CpG island and might affect(More)
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. To identify genetic factors that modify the risk of lung cancer in individuals of Chinese ancestry, we performed a genome-wide association scan in 5,408 subjects (2,331 individuals with lung cancer (cases) and 3,077 controls) followed by a two-stage validation among 12,722 subjects (6,313(More)
BACKGROUND Family planning is one of the four pillars of the Safe Motherhood Initiative to reduce maternal death in developing countries. We aimed to estimate the effect of contraceptive use on maternal mortality and the expected reduction in maternal mortality if the unmet need for contraception were met, at country, regional, and world levels. METHOD We(More)
BACKGROUND China is increasingly facing the challenge of control of the growing burden of non-communicable diseases. We assessed the epidemiology of Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia in China between 1990, and 2010, to improve estimates of the burden of disease, analyse time trends, and inform health policy decisions relevant to China's(More)