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Regulation of the Drosophila pigment-dispersing factor (pdf) gene products was analyzed in wild-type and clock mutants. Mutations in the transcription factors CLOCK and CYCLE severely diminish pdf RNA and neuropeptide (PDF) levels in a single cluster of clock-gene-expressing brain cells, called small ventrolateral neurons (s-LN(v)s). This clock-gene(More)
Considerable evidence indicates that NO biology involves a family of NO-related molecules and that S-nitrosothiols (SNOs) are central to signal transduction and host defence. It is unknown, however, how cells switch off the signals or protect themselves from the SNOs produced for defence purposes. Here we have purified a single activity from Escherichia(More)
In late summer through early winter of 1998, there were several outbreaks of respiratory disease in the swine herds of North Carolina, Texas, Minnesota, and Iowa. Four viral isolates from outbreaks in different states were analyzed genetically. Genotyping and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the four swine viruses had emerged through two different(More)
In the present study, 25 195 BAC ends for channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were sequenced, generating 20 366 clean BAC-end sequences (BES), with an average read length of 557 bp after trimming. A total of 11 414 601 bp were generated, representing approximately 1.2% of the catfish genome. Based on this survey, the catfish genome was found to be highly(More)
Simvastatin (SV) is a lactone prodrug used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Upon incubation of SV with liver microsomal preparations from human donors, four major metabolic products were formed (3'-hydroxy SV, 6'-exomethylene SV, 3',5'-dihydrodiol SV, and the active hydroxy acid, SVA), together with several minor unidentified metabolites. The(More)
Several distinct species (genomovars) comprise bacteria previously identified merely as Burkholderia cepacia. Understanding how these species, collectively referred to as the B. cepacia complex, differ in their epidemiology and pathogenic potential in cystic fibrosis (CF) is important in efforts to refine management strategies. B. cepacia isolates recovered(More)
Accumulation of reactive oxygen species during aging leads to programmed cell death (PCD) in many cell types but has not been explored in mammalian fertilized eggs, in which mitochondria are "immature," in contrast to "mature" mitochondria in somatic cells. We characterized PCD in mouse zygotes induced by either intensive (1 mM for 1.5 h) or mild (200(More)
Members of the NF-kappaB/Rel and inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) protein families have been implicated in signal transduction programs that prevent cell death elicited by the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF). Although NF-kappaB appears to stimulate the expression of specific protective genes, neither the identities of these genes nor the precise role(More)
Yeast hemoglobin was discovered close to half a century ago, but its function has remained unknown. Herein, we report that this flavohemoglobin protects Saccharomyces cerevisiae from nitrosative stress. Deletion of the flavohemoglobin gene (YHB1) abolished the nitric oxide (NO)-consuming activity of yeast cells. Levels of protein nitrosylation were more(More)
Refractory chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a significant complication resulting from allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have shown promise for treating refractory cGVHD, but the favorable effects of MSCs therapy in cGVHD are complex and not fully understood. In this prospective clinical(More)