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BACKGROUND Bilateral arm training (BAT) and constraint-induced therapy (CIT) have shown beneficial effects in improving motor control and function of the upper extremities (UE) for patients with stroke. Thus far, no study has directly investigated the relative effects of BAT versus CIT on brain reorganization. This study compared the effects of BAT with(More)
In this study, we compared the responsiveness and validity of the Box and Block Test (BBT), the Nine-Hole Peg Test (NHPT), and the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT). We randomized 59 patients with stroke into one of three rehabilitation treatments for 3 weeks. We administered six outcome measures (BBT, NHPT, ARAT, Fugl-Meyer Assessment [FMA], Motor Activity(More)
OBJECTIVE This study compared the effects of a distributed form of constraint-induced therapy with control intervention in motor recovery and brain reorganization after stroke. DESIGN A two-group randomized controlled trial with pretreatment and posttreatment measures was conducted. Thirteen patients with stroke were randomly assigned to the distributed(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE This study compared the efficacy of distributed constraint-induced therapy (dCIT), bilateral arm training (BAT), and control treatment (CT) on motor control and functional performance of the upper limb in stroke patients. METHODS A total of 66 patients with mean stroke onset of 16.20 months and mild to moderate motor impairment(More)
The goal of this investigation was to explore the use of spectral analysis to examine the data obtained during computerized dynamic posturography (CDP). In particular, we examined whether spectral analysis would provide more detailed information about underlying postural control strategies and potential learning across conditions and trials of the sensory(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the metric properties of a myotonometer. DESIGN Metric study. SETTING Three medical centers. PARTICIPANTS Stroke patients (N=67). INTERVENTION Upper-extremity rehabilitation programs. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The tone, elasticity, and stiffness of relaxed extensor digitorum, flexor carpi radialis, and flexor carpi ulnaris were(More)
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, and brain metastasis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in lung cancer. CDH2 (N-cadherin, a mesenchymal marker of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition) and ADAM9 (a type I transmembrane protein) are related to lung cancer brain metastasis; however, it is unclear how they interact to(More)
Hypoxia and reoxygenation are common characteristics of solid tumors, which lead to oxidative stress and activation of stress-response genes. Previously, we observed that N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) was strongly down-regulated after shifting to reoxygenation, but the regulatory mechanism of NDRG1 remained elusive. Here we focused on the(More)
Macrophages play a pivotal role in the immune system through recognition and elimination of microbial pathogens. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on macrophages interact with microbial substances and initiate signal transduction through intracellular adapters. TLR4, which recognizes the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria,(More)
Objective. Test-retest reliability of the myotonometer was investigated in patients with subacute stroke. Methods. Twelve patients with substroke (3 to 9 months poststroke) were examined in standardized testing position twice, 60 minutes apart, with the Myoton-3 myometer to measure tone, elasticity, and stiffness of relaxed bilateral biceps and triceps(More)