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BACKGROUND Bilateral arm training (BAT) and constraint-induced therapy (CIT) have shown beneficial effects in improving motor control and function of the upper extremities (UE) for patients with stroke. Thus far, no study has directly investigated the relative effects of BAT versus CIT on brain reorganization. This study compared the effects of BAT with(More)
In this study, we compared the responsiveness and validity of the Box and Block Test (BBT), the Nine-Hole Peg Test (NHPT), and the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT). We randomized 59 patients with stroke into one of three rehabilitation treatments for 3 weeks. We administered six outcome measures (BBT, NHPT, ARAT, Fugl-Meyer Assessment [FMA], Motor Activity(More)
OBJECTIVE This study compared the effects of a distributed form of constraint-induced therapy with control intervention in motor recovery and brain reorganization after stroke. DESIGN A two-group randomized controlled trial with pretreatment and posttreatment measures was conducted. Thirteen patients with stroke were randomly assigned to the distributed(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE This study compared the efficacy of distributed constraint-induced therapy (dCIT), bilateral arm training (BAT), and control treatment (CT) on motor control and functional performance of the upper limb in stroke patients. METHODS A total of 66 patients with mean stroke onset of 16.20 months and mild to moderate motor impairment(More)
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, and brain metastasis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in lung cancer. CDH2 (N-cadherin, a mesenchymal marker of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition) and ADAM9 (a type I transmembrane protein) are related to lung cancer brain metastasis; however, it is unclear how they interact to(More)
The goal of this investigation was to explore the use of spectral analysis to examine the data obtained during computerized dynamic posturography (CDP). In particular, we examined whether spectral analysis would provide more detailed information about underlying postural control strategies and potential learning across conditions and trials of the sensory(More)
Macrophages play a pivotal role in the immune system through recognition and elimination of microbial pathogens. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on macrophages interact with microbial substances and initiate signal transduction through intracellular adapters. TLR4, which recognizes the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria,(More)
BACKGROUND Although bilateral arm training (BAT) has been widely studied, the comparative effects of therapist-based BAT (TBAT) versus robot-assisted BAT (RBAT) remains unknown. OBJECTIVE This study compared the efficacy of TBAT, RBAT, and a control treatment (CT) on motor control, functional performance, and quality of life after chronic stroke. DESIGN(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the relative and absolute reliabilities of the myotonometer. DESIGN Psychometric study. SETTING Three medical centers. PARTICIPANTS Patients with stroke (N=61). INTERVENTIONS Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Muscle tone, elasticity, and stiffness of relaxed affected deltoid, triceps brachii, biceps brachii, extensor(More)
OBJECTIVE To comprehensively investigate and compare the responsiveness and validity of two instrumental activities of daily living (ADL) measures: a modified version of the Nottingham Extended ADL Scale and the Frenchay Activities Index, after stroke rehabilitation. SETTING Rehabilitation clinics. SUBJECTS Seventy stroke patients received a three-week(More)