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Using a polyclonal antibody against postnatal cerebellar cells, we have isolated a new, brain-specific member of the lipid-binding protein family (BLBP). Members of this family, such as cellular retinoic acid-binding protein, have been shown to carry small hydrophobic signaling molecules between cellular compartments. The expression of BLBP is spatially and(More)
A recently identified chemokine, fractalkine, is a member of the chemokine gene family, which consists principally of secreted, proinflammatory molecules. Fractalkine is distinguished structurally by the presence of a CX3C motif as well as transmembrane spanning and mucin-like domains and shows atypical constitutive expression in a number of(More)
Formation and maintenance of a radial glial scaffold is fundamental for development of the vertebrate central nervous system. In mammals, radial glia arise in the neuroepithelium immediately prior to differentiation and migration of neurons away from the ventricular zones, and they are maintained until neuronal migration subsides. We have previously shown(More)
Stimulus specific adaptation (SSA) is known as a decrease of neuronal response to stimuli that are commonly presented than those rarely occurred. Previous studies have shown that SSA occurs at different levels of auditory pathway, from inferior colliculus (IC), auditory thalamus to auditory cortex (AC). In this study, we further investigated the properties(More)
We show that phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF-2) by the protein kinase GCN2 mediates translational control of the yeast transcriptional activator GCN4. In vitro, GCN2 specifically phosphorylates the alpha subunit of rabbit or yeast eIF-2. In vivo, phosphorylation of eIF-2 alpha increases in response to(More)
Signaling mechanisms underlying neurotrophic regulation of synaptic transmission are not fully understood. Here we show that neurotrophin-3 (NT3)-induced potentiation of synaptic transmission at the neuromuscular synapses is blocked by inhibition of phosphoinositide-3 kinase, phospholipase C-gamma or the downstream IP3 receptors of phospholipase C-gamma,(More)
Phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF-2 alpha) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the GCN2 protein kinase stimulates the translation of GCN4 mRNA. The protein kinases heme-regulated inhibitor of translation (HRI) and double-stranded RNA-dependent eIF-2 alpha protein kinase (dsRNA-PK) inhibit initiation of translation in(More)
Migration is a basic feature of many cell types in a wide range of species. Since the 1800s, cell migration has been proposed to occur in the nervous and immune systems, and distinct molecular cues for mammalian neurons and leukocytes have been identified. Here we report that Slit, a secreted protein previously known for its role of repulsion in axon(More)
The mammalian defense system can respond to a variety of threats, but this capability is not just a simple alarm system for triggering antigen-presenting cells and initiating cellular immunity. Instead, the body is an integrated system in which nearly every cell type can relay the alarm through the production of chemokines, which recruit specific(More)
A number of important neurological diseases, including HIV-1 encephalitis, Alzheimer's disease, and brain trauma, are associated with increased cerebral expression of the multifunctional cytokine transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1). To determine whether overexpression of TGF-beta 1 within the central nervous system (CNS) can contribute to the(More)