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Astrocytes may serve as effectual APCs for T cell-mediated immune responses to myelin components during multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Although astrocytes have been reported not to constitutively express MHC class II molecules, expression is up-regulated during active EAE and by in vitro incubation with IFN-gamma.(More)
Proteolipid protein (PLP) is a major component of the central nervous system (CNS) myelin membrane and has been shown to induce acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in genetically susceptible animals. Here we describe conditions by which a relapsing-remitting form of EAE can be reliably induced in SJL/J mice either actively immunized with(More)
The mechanisms underlying the initiation of virus-induced autoimmune disease are not well understood. Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced demyelinating disease (TMEV-IDD), a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, is initiated by TMEV-specific CD4(+) T cells targeting virally infected central nervous system-resident (CNS-resident) antigen-presenting(More)
  • P Lee, L J Tan
  • 1979
A study of drug compliance was carried out on 108 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Thirty-nine per cent were non-compliant with their antirheumatic medication, varying from occasional to complete failure to take the prescribed drugs. Compared with those taking their medication regularly, the non-compliant patients had a significantly lower mean active(More)
There is controversy regarding the possible role of glial cells as APCs in the pathogenesis of central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Microglia have been clearly shown to present Ag in the CNS, and due to the proximity of activated astroglial cells(More)
Tolerization of SJL/J mice with splenocytes coupled with proteolipid protein (PLP), the major protein component of central nervous system myelin, resulted in dramatic inhibition of relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (R-EAE) induced by mouse spinal cord homogenate (MSCH). Mice tolerized with splenocytes coupled with MSCH (a complex mixture(More)
B7/CD28-mediated costimulation is a promising target for therapeutic intervention in autoimmune diseases. However, studies addressing the differential functional roles of B7-1 and B7-2 in several autoimmune models have resulted in conflicting data, perhaps due to the temporal dynamics of B7-1 and B7-2 surface expression on different cell types and/or at(More)
The effects of neuroantigen-specific tolerance on the induction and effector stages of relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (R-EAE) were examined. The incidence of clinical and histologic signs of active MSCH-induced R-EAE, and accompanying neuroantigen-specific DTH responses, were dramatically reduced in SJL/J mice tolerized via the i.v.(More)
Ag-specific tolerance induced by the i.v. administration of splenocytes coupled with mouse spinal cord homogenate, containing a mixture of myelin Ag, dramatically inhibits development and expression of clinical and histologic signs of both active and adoptive forms of relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (R-EAE) in the SJL/J host. Here we(More)
A dense population, global connectivity and frequent human-animal interaction give southern China an important role in the spread and emergence of infectious disease. However, patterns of person-to-person contact relevant to the spread of directly transmitted infections such as influenza remain poorly quantified in the region. We conducted a household-based(More)