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Brain registration to a stereotaxic atlas is an effective way to report anatomic locations of interest and to perform anatomic quantification. However, existing stereotaxic atlases lack comprehensive coordinate information about white matter structures. In this paper, white matter-specific atlases in stereotaxic coordinates are introduced. As a reference(More)
We investigated the role of astrocytes in activity-dependent modulation of inhibitory synaptic transmission in hippocampal slices. Repetitive firing of an interneuron decreased the probability of synaptic failures in spike-evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (unitary IPSCs) in CA1 pyramidal neurons. The GABAB-receptor antagonist CGP55845A abolished this(More)
Incomplete retinal vascularization occurs in both Norrie disease and familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR). Norrin, the protein product of the Norrie disease gene, is a secreted protein of unknown biochemical function. One form of FEVR is caused by defects in Frizzled-4 (Fz4), a presumptive Wnt receptor. We show here that Norrin and Fz4 function as a(More)
Electronic government is being increasingly recognized as a means for transforming public governance. Despite this increasing interest, information systems (IS) literature is mostly silent on what really contributes to the success of e-government 100 TEO, SRIVASTAVA, AND JIANG Web sites. To fill this gap, this study examines the role of trust in(More)
The induction of pluripotency or trans-differentiation of one cell type to another can be accomplished with cell-lineage-specific transcription factors. Here, we report that repression of a single RNA binding polypyrimidine-tract-binding (PTB) protein, which occurs during normal brain development via the action of miR-124, is sufficient to induce(More)
The subcortical white matter of the adult human brain harbors a pool of glial progenitor cells. These cells can be isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) after either transfection with green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the CNP2 promoter, or A2B5-targeted immunotagging. Although these cells give rise largely to(More)
Calcium signaling, manifested as intercellular waves of rising cytosolic calcium, is, in many cell types, the result of calcium-induced secretion of ATP and activation of purinergic receptors. The mechanism by which ATP is released has hitherto not been established. Here, we show by real-time bioluminescence imaging that ATP efflux is not uniform across a(More)
Brain functions are based on the dynamic interaction of excitatory and inhibitory inputs. Spillover of glutamate from excitatory synapses may diffuse to and modulate nearby inhibitory synapses. By recording unitary inhibitory postsynaptic currents (uIPSCs) from cell pairs in CA1 of the hippocampus, we demonstrated that low concentrations of Kainate receptor(More)
Phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) is an important mechanism regulating global and gene-specific translation in response to different environmental stresses. Central to the eIF2 kinase response is the preferential translation of ATF4 mRNA, encoding a transcriptional activator of genes involved in stress remediation. In this report, we(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIM Circulating miRNAs exist in serum and plasma and they can be used as a potential noninvasive molecular marker for colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis. The present study was to test the availability of direct amplification of miRNAs from plasma without RNA extraction, and to evaluate its clinical application value in CRC. METHODS Plasma(More)