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In a previous paper a method for simulating the electric potentials on the surface of the brain was introduced. This method consisted of the construction of a layer of radially oriented current dipoles in a conducting sphere that simulated the head so that the voltages generated by the layer would take the values measured on the surface of the medium (the(More)
In the rodent trigeminal principal nucleus (PrV), trigeminal afferent terminals and postsynaptic cells form discrete modules ("barrelettes") that replicate the patterned array of whiskers and sinus hairs on the snout. Barrelette neurons of the PrV relay whisker-specific patterns to the contralateral thalamus and, subsequently, to the primary somatosensory(More)
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)-type antidepressants are often prescribed to depressive pregnant women for their less adverse side effects. However, growing evidences have shown increased congenital malformations and poor neonatal adaptation in the perinatal SSRI-exposed human infants as well as animal pups. In this study, we examined the(More)
The significance of very early experience in the maturation of whisker-to-barrel system comes primarily from neonatal whisker or infraorbital nerve lesion studies conducted prior to the formation of cortical barrels. However, the surgical procedures damage the sensory pathway; it is difficult to examine the consequence after the recovery of sensory(More)
Dravet syndrome (DS) is characterized by severe infant-onset myoclonic epilepsy along with delayed psychomotor development and heightened premature mortality. A primary monogenic cause is mutation of the SCN1A gene, which encodes the voltage-gated sodium channel subunit Nav1.1. The nature and timing of changes caused by SCN1A mutation in the hippocampal(More)
Development of whisker-specific neural patterns in the rodent somatosensory system requires NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated activity. In cortex-specific NR1 knockout (CxNR1KO) mice, while thalamocortical afferents (TCAs) develop rudimentary whisker-specific patterns in the primary somatosensory (barrel) cortex, layer IV cells do not develop barrels or orient(More)
Growing evidence from human and animal studies has shown adverse consequences of maternal usage of antidepressants in their newborn babies. To study the effects of early antidepressant exposure on motor function later in life, we treated neonatal rat pups with fluoxetine (FLX), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)-type antidepressant, from the(More)
The combined ingestion of ketamine (Ket) and amphetamine (Amph) by drug-users has been rampant and produced more severe behavioral abnormality. However, the interactive consequences of the two drugs are still unclear. In this study, we treated adult male mice with a single i.p. injection of saline, Amph (5 mg/kg), low Ket (LK, 10 mg/kg), high Ket (HK, 50(More)
Glutamatergic neurotransmission plays important roles in sensory map formation. The absence of the group I metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) leads to abnormal sensory map formation throughout the mouse somatosensory pathway. To examine the role of cortical mGluR5 expression on barrel map formation, we generated cortex-specific mGluR5 knock-out (KO)(More)
The mesocorticolimbic system contains dopamine (DA)-producing neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and their projection targets, including the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), amygdala (AMY) and nucleus accumbens (NAc). Disruption of this system might attribute to mental illnesses. In the present study, we adopted the postweaning social isolation(More)