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Sensitization of the pain-transducing ion channel TRPV1 underlies thermal hyperalgesia by proalgesic agents such as nerve growth factor (NGF). The currently accepted model is that the NGF-mediated increase in TRPV1 function during hyperalgesia utilizes activation of phospholipase C (PLC) to cleave PIP2, proposed to tonically inhibit TRPV1. In this study, we(More)
Although a large number of ion channels are now believed to be regulated by phosphoinositides, particularly phosphoinositide 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), the mechanisms involved in phosphoinositide regulation are unclear. For the TRP superfamily of ion channels, the role and mechanism of PIP2 modulation has been especially difficult to resolve. Outstanding(More)
Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels are nonselective cation channels that are activated by the direct binding of the cyclic nucleotides cAMP and cGMP. The region linking the last membrane-spanning region (S6) to the cyclic nucleotide binding domain in the COOH terminus, termed the C-linker, has been shown to play an important role in coupling cyclic(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system. Despite a variety of anti-inflammatory or immunomodulation drugs including interferon-beta are effective to reduce relapse risk, most patients have progressive neurological deterioration due to axonal degeneration. Accumulation of(More)
Carbenoxolone (CBX) is a widely used gap-junction inhibitor. We have previously shown that treatment with CBX significantly delayed the onset of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, the mechanism by which CBX delays the onset of EAE remains to be elucidated. Here, we show that CBX specifically inhibits the production of IL-23 by(More)
Spread-spectrum watermarking, in which random noise is added to transform coefficients and detected with a correlation operator, has become a preferred paradigm for many watermarking applications. This paper analyzes the performance of such a watermark-ing system when the underlying transform is a tight frame rather than a traditional orthonormal expansion.(More)
—Vector wavelet transforms for vector-valued fields can be implemented directly from multiwavelets; however, existing multiwavelets offer surprisingly poor performance for transforms in vector-valued signal-processing applications. In this paper, the reason for this performance failure is identified, and a remedy is proposed. A multiwavelet design(More)
We developed the LigAmp assay for sensitive detection and accurate quantification of viruses and cells with single-base mutations. In LigAmp, two oligonucleotides are hybridized adjacently to a DNA template. One oligonucleotide matches the target sequence and contains a probe sequence. If the target sequence is present, the oligonucleotides are ligated(More)
Vector wavelet transforms for vector-valued fields can be implemented directly from multiwavelets; however, existing multiwavelets offer surprisingly poor performance for transforms in vector-valued signal-processing applications. In this paper, the reason for this performance failure is identified, and a remedy is proposed. A multiwavelet design criterion,(More)