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Variants of hepatitis A virus (pHM175 virus) recovered from persistently infected green monkey kidney (BS-C-1) cells induced a cytopathic effect during serial passage in BS-C-1 or fetal rhesus kidney (FRhK-4) cells. Epitope-specific radioimmunofocus assays showed that this virus comprised two virion populations, one with altered antigenicity including(More)
The RNA genomes of human hepatitis C virus (HCV) and the animal pestiviruses responsible for bovine viral diarrhea (BVDV) and hog cholera (HChV) have relatively lengthy 5' nontranslated regions (5'NTRs) sharing short segments of conserved primary nucleotide sequence. The functions of these 5'NTRs are poorly understood. By comparative sequence analysis and(More)
Cap-independent translation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA is mediated by an internal ribosomal entry segment (IRES) located within the 5' nontranslated RNA (5'NTR), but previous studies provide conflicting views of the viral sequences which are required for translation initiation. These discrepancies could have resulted from the inclusion of less than(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) initiates translation of its polyprotein under the control of an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) that comprises most of the 341-nucleotide (nt) 5' nontranslated RNA (5'NTR). A comparative analysis of related flaviviral sequences suggested that an RNA segment for which secondary structure was previously ill defined (domain II, nt(More)
We examined the antigenic structure of human hepatitis A virus (HAV) by characterizing a series of 21 murine monoclonal-antibody-resistant neutralization escape mutants derived from the HM175 virus strain. The escape phenotype of each mutant was associated with reduced antibody binding in radioimmunofocus assays. Neutralization escape mutations were(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Several lines of evidence suggest that the core protein of HCV may play a role in the development of this cancer. The authors examined regulation of the cell cycle in stable cell lines derived from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells that constitutively(More)
Rapidly replicating, cytopathic (rr/cpe+) variants of hepatitis A virus (HAV) isolated from persistently infected BS-C-1 cells have numerous mutations from cell culture-adapted rr/cpe- HAV. To determine which mutations in one rr/cpe+ virus, HM175/18f, determine enhanced replication in BS-C-1 cells, a series of chimeric viruses was rescued from infectious(More)
Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) through breast milk is a significant mechanism of infection in many regions of the world. We compared the HIV-1 populations in paired blood and breast milk samples using a heteroduplex tracking assay (HTA) for the V1/V2 regions of env (V1/V2-HTA). V1/V2-HTA patterns were(More)
Hepatitis A virus, an hepatotropic picornavirus, is a common cause of acute hepatitis in man for which there is no available vaccine. Competitive binding studies carried out in solid phase suggest that neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to hepatitis A virus recognize a limited number of epitopes on the capsid surface, although the polypeptide locations of(More)
Six seronegative owl monkeys were intravenously inoculated with an antigenic variant (S18) of hepatitis A virus that is highly adapted to growth in cell culture and resists neutralization by monoclonal antibodies due to replacement of aspartic acid 70 of capsid protein VP3 with histidine. Each developed hepatitis 22-33 days after inoculation. Virus in(More)
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