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We used the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) method to quantitatively synthesize data from 19 published brain mapping studies of phonological processing in reading, six with Chinese and 13 with alphabetic languages. It demonstrated high concordance of cortical activity across multiple studies in each written language system as well as significant(More)
Reading in a second language (L2) is a complex task that entails an interaction between L2 and the native language (L1). To study the underlying mechanisms, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to visualize Chinese-English bilinguals' brain activity in phonological processing of logographic Chinese and alphabetic English, two written(More)
Language development entails four fundamental and interactive abilities: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Over the past four decades, a large body of evidence has indicated that reading acquisition is strongly associated with a child's listening skills, particularly the child's sensitivity to phonological structures of spoken language.(More)
Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to identify the neural correlates of Chinese character and word reading. The Chinese stimuli were presented visually, one at a time. Subjects covertly generated a word that was semantically related to each stimulus. Three sorts of Chinese items were used: single characters having precise meanings, single(More)
In reading, lexical form-form relations may be more reliable than form-meaning relations. Accordingly, phonological forms (activated by graphic forms) become actual constituents, rather than addenda, of word identification. These considerations suggest that access to phonological forms can precede meaning access in single-word reading in many circumstances.(More)
Written Chinese as logographic script differs notably from alphabets such as English in visual form, orthography, phonology, and semantics. Thus, research on the Chinese language is important to advance our understanding of the universality and particularity of the organization of language systems in the brain. In this study, we examine the neural systems(More)
The authors examine the implications of research on Chinese for theories of reading and propose the lexical constituency model as a general framework for word reading across writing systems. Word identities are defined by 3 interlinked constituents (orthographic, phonological, and semantic). The implemented model simulates the time course of graphic,(More)
A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was conducted to map syntactic and semantic processes onto the brain. Chinese-English bilingual subjects performed two experimental tasks: a syntactic plausibility judgment task in which they decided whether a viewed verb phrase was syntactically legal, and a semantic plausibility judgment task in which(More)
DNA methylation at the 5 position of cytosine (5mC) in the mammalian genome is a key epigenetic event critical for various cellular processes. The ten-eleven translocation (Tet) family of 5mC-hydroxylases, which convert 5mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), offers a way for dynamic regulation of DNA methylation. Here we report that Tet1 binds to unmodified(More)