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Mammalian noncoding microRNAs (miRNAs) are suggested to be involved in immune system function. We found that miR-155 expression was highly correlated with disease severity in patients with multiple sclerosis and mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Knockdown of miR-155 resulted in low Th1 and Th17 cells and mild EAE, and its(More)
Because of the crucial role coarse roots (>2 mm diameter) play in plant functions and terrestrial ecosystems, detecting and quantifying the size, architecture, and biomass of coarse roots are important. Traditional excavation methods are labor intensive and destructive, with limited quantification and repeatability of measurements over time. As a(More)
Rates of acquisition and clearance of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) during a 3-year period in women 51 years of age were compared with rates in younger women to provide data on cervical screening for women >50 years of age. Paired, cytologically negative, archived cervical smears taken 3 years apart from 710 women in Nottingham, United Kingdom, were(More)
BACKGROUND Urinary bladder cancer is a common malignancy worldwide, and outcomes for patients with advanced bladder cancer remain poor. Antiproliferative factor (APF) is a potent glycopeptide inhibitor of epithelial cell proliferation that was discovered in the urine of patients with interstitial cystitis, a disorder with bladder epithelial thinning and(More)
The GPR indices used for predicting root biomass are measures of root radar reflectance. However, root radar reflectance is highly correlated with root water content. The objectives of this study are to assess the impact of root water content on GPR-based root biomass estimation and to develop more reliable approaches to quantify root biomass using GPR.(More)
The origin and evolution of new microRNAs (miRNAs) is important because they can impact the transcriptome broadly. As miRNAs can potentially emerge constantly and rapidly, their rates of birth and evolution have been extensively debated. However, most new miRNAs identified appear not to be biologically significant. After an extensive search, we identified(More)
The development of the devastating neurodegenerative condition, Alzheimer's disease, is strongly associated with amyloid-beta (Abeta) deposition, neuronal apoptosis, and cell loss. Here, we provide evidence that implicates these same mechanisms in the retinal disease glaucoma, a major cause of irreversible blindness worldwide, previously associated simply(More)
Sulforaphane (SFN) is an organosulfur compound present in vegetables and has potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. This study was aimed at investigating the effect of treatment with SFN on inflammation and oxidative stress, and the potential mechanisms underlying the action of SFN in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in C57BL/6(More)
PURPOSE To assess the neuroprotective effects of different glutamate modulation strategies, with a nonselective (MK801) and a selective (ifenprodil) NMDA receptor antagonist and a metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist (mGluR Group II, LY354740), in glaucoma-related in vivo rat models of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) apoptosis. METHODS RGC apoptosis was(More)
DNA-binding proteins are vital for the study of cellular processes. In recent genome engineering studies, the identification of proteins with certain functions has become increasingly important and needs to be performed rapidly and efficiently. In previous years, several approaches have been developed to improve the identification of DNA-binding proteins.(More)