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Mammalian noncoding microRNAs (miRNAs) are suggested to be involved in immune system function. We found that miR-155 expression was highly correlated with disease severity in patients with multiple sclerosis and mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Knockdown of miR-155 resulted in low Th1 and Th17 cells and mild EAE, and its(More)
Because of the crucial role coarse roots (>2 mm diameter) play in plant functions and terrestrial ecosystems, detecting and quantifying the size, architecture, and biomass of coarse roots are important. Traditional excavation methods are labor intensive and destructive, with limited quantification and repeatability of measurements over time. As a(More)
BACKGROUND Urinary bladder cancer is a common malignancy worldwide, and outcomes for patients with advanced bladder cancer remain poor. Antiproliferative factor (APF) is a potent glycopeptide inhibitor of epithelial cell proliferation that was discovered in the urine of patients with interstitial cystitis, a disorder with bladder epithelial thinning and(More)
The GPR indices used for predicting root biomass are measures of root radar reflectance. However, root radar reflectance is highly correlated with root water content. The objectives of this study are to assess the impact of root water content on GPR-based root biomass estimation and to develop more reliable approaches to quantify root biomass using GPR.(More)
The development of the devastating neurodegenerative condition, Alzheimer's disease, is strongly associated with amyloid-beta (Abeta) deposition, neuronal apoptosis, and cell loss. Here, we provide evidence that implicates these same mechanisms in the retinal disease glaucoma, a major cause of irreversible blindness worldwide, previously associated simply(More)
PURPOSE To assess the neuroprotective effects of different glutamate modulation strategies, with a nonselective (MK801) and a selective (ifenprodil) NMDA receptor antagonist and a metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist (mGluR Group II, LY354740), in glaucoma-related in vivo rat models of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) apoptosis. METHODS RGC apoptosis was(More)
In recent years the focus of glaucoma research has shifted toward neuroprotection, as the traditional strategies of lowering intraocular pressure have been shown to be unable to prevent progressive vision loss in some glaucoma patients. As a result various neuroprotective drug-based approaches have been shown capable of reducing the death of retinal(More)
Asymmetric distributions of activities of the protein kinases Akt and glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3beta) are critical for the formation of neuronal polarity. However, the mechanisms underlying polarized regulation of this pathway remain unclear. In this study, we report that the instability of Akt regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS)(More)
The origin and evolution of new microRNAs (miRNAs) is important because they can impact the transcriptome broadly. As miRNAs can potentially emerge constantly and rapidly, their rates of birth and evolution have been extensively debated. However, most new miRNAs identified appear not to be biologically significant. After an extensive search, we identified(More)
—Roots have important functions in the ecosystem. Therefore, establishing root-related parameters such as root size, biomass, and 3-D architecture is necessary. Traditional methods for measuring tree roots are labor intensive and destructive to nature , limiting quantitative and repeated assessments in long-term research. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR)(More)