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Two recursive and numerically stable matrix algorithms for modeling layered diffraction gratings, the S-matrix algorithm and the R-matrix algorithm, are systematically presented in a form that is independent of the underlying grating models, geometries, and mountings. Many implementation variants of the algorithms are also presented. Their physical(More)
We present results of numerical simulations and preliminary experiments to investigate and characterize the effect of asymmetrical coupling of normally incident light to surface plasmon polaritons ͑SPPs͒ on metallic blazed gratings. Two types of blazed gratings are investigated, a two-dimensional ͑2D͒ area-coded binary grating and a one-dimensional ͑1D͒(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies regarding rhythm control in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) could not sufficiently demonstrate the efficacy of available anti-arrhythmic drugs. 'Upstream therapy' has emerged as a potential strategy for the prevention and treatment of AF. The use of angiotensin II receptor blockers and statins has been suggested to(More)
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been widely used in clinical practice for more than 20 years because it causes the release of many growth factors. However, the burst release pattern and short release period of PRP have become obstacles to its application. An optimal controllable release system is an urgent need for researchers. This study investigated(More)
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