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We have produced a draft sequence of the rice genome for the most widely cultivated subspecies in China, Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica, by whole-genome shotgun sequencing. The genome was 466 megabases in size, with an estimated 46,022 to 55,615 genes. Functional coverage in the assembled sequences was 92.0%. About 42.2% of the genome was in exact(More)
Down syndrome (DS), or trisomy 21, is a common disorder associated with several complex clinical phenotypes. Although several hypotheses have been put forward, it is unclear as to whether particular gene loci on chromosome 21 (HSA21) are sufficient to cause DS and its associated features. Here we present a high-resolution genetic map of DS phenotypes based(More)
The molecular and neural mechanisms regulating human social-emotional behaviors are fundamentally important but largely unknown; unraveling these requires a genetic systems neuroscience analysis of human models. Williams Syndrome (WS), a condition caused by deletion of ~28 genes, is associated with a gregarious personality, strong drive to approach(More)
BACKGROUND The isochore, a large DNA sequence with relatively small GC variance, is one of the most important structures in eukaryotic genomes. Although the isochore has been widely studied in humans and other species, little is known about its distribution in pigs. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS In this paper, we construct a map of long homogeneous genome regions(More)
Structurally related ion transport peptides (ITP) and crustacean hyperglycemic hormones (CHH) are increasingly implicated in diverse metabolic and developmental functions in arthropods. We identified a conserved ITP gene encoding two peptides by alternative splicing in Manduca sexta, Bombyx mori, and Aedes aegypti: A C-terminally amidated ITP and a(More)
Our previous work has showed that lymphocytes can synthesize catecholamines (CAs). However, role and mechanism of the endogenous CAs in lymphocytes in modulation of immune function are less known. In the present study, we used alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (alpha-MT), an inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and pargyline, an inhibitor of monoamine oxydase, to(More)
Although genetics is the most significant known determinant of human intelligence, specific gene contributions remain largely unknown. To accelerate understanding in this area, we have taken a new approach by studying the relationship between quantitative gene expression and intelligence in a cohort of 65 patients with Williams Syndrome (WS), a(More)
BACKGROUND Most maternal deaths in developing countries can be prevented. China is among the 13 countries with the most maternal deaths; however, there has been a marked decrease in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) over the last 3 decades. China's reduction in the MMR has contributed significantly to the global decline of the MMR. This study examined the(More)
Down Syndrome is the most common genetic cause for intellectual disability, yet the pathophysiology of cognitive impairment in Down Syndrome is unknown. We compared fMRI scans of 15 individuals with Down Syndrome to 14 typically developing control subjects while they viewed 50 min of cartoon video clips. There was widespread increased synchrony between(More)
Slo2.1 channels conduct an outwardly rectifying K(+) current when activated by high [Na(+)](i). Here, we show that gating of these channels can also be activated by fenamates such as niflumic acid (NFA), even in the absence of intracellular Na(+). In Xenopus oocytes injected with <10 ng cRNA, heterologously expressed human Slo2.1 current was negligible, but(More)