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Transformation of E. coli cells treated with CaCl(2) to multiple antibiotic resistance by purified R-factor DNA is reported. Drug resistance is expressed in a small fraction of the recipient bacterial population almost immediately after uptake of DNA, but full genetic expression of resistance requires subsequent incubation in drugfree medium before(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are activated by pathogen-associated molecular patterns to induce innate immune responses and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interferons and anti-inflammatory cytokines. TLRs activate downstream effectors through adaptors that contain Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domains, but the mechanisms accounting for(More)
Variants of NOD2, an intracellular sensor of bacteria-derived muramyl dipeptide (MDP), increase susceptibility to Crohn's disease (CD). These variants are thought to be defective in activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) and antibacterial defenses, but CD clinical specimens display elevated NF-kappaB activity. To illuminate the pathophysiological(More)
Kinesin is a dimeric motor protein that transports organelles in a stepwise manner toward the plus-end of microtubules by converting the energy of ATP hydrolysis into mechanical work. External forces can influence the behavior of kinesin, and force-velocity curves have shown that the motor will slow down and eventually stall under opposing loads of(More)
NOD2, a NOD-like receptor (NLR), is an intracellular sensor of bacterial muramyl dipeptide (MDP) that was suggested to promote secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1beta. Yet, the molecular mechanism by which NOD2 can stimulate IL-1beta secretion, and its biological significance were heretofore unknown. We found that NOD2 through its N-terminal(More)
The mouse has become an indispensable and versatile model organism for the study of development, genetics, behavior, and disease. The application of comprehensive gene expression profiling technologies to compare normal and diseased tissues or to assess molecular alterations resulting from various experimental interventions has the potential to provide(More)
We used an experimental murine cancer metastasis model in which a colon adenocarcinoma cell line generates lung metastases, whose growth is stimulated in response to injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), to investigate the role of NF-kappaB in inflammation-induced tumor growth. We found that LPS-induced metastatic growth response in this model(More)
IKKbeta-dependent NF-kappaB activation plays a key role in innate immunity and inflammation, and inhibition of IKKbeta has been considered as a likely anti-inflammatory therapy. Surprisingly, however, mice with a targeted IKKbeta deletion in myeloid cells are more susceptible to endotoxin-induced shock than control mice. Increased endotoxin susceptibility(More)
Macrophages are pivotal constituents of the innate immune system, vital for recognition and elimination of microbial pathogens. Macrophages use Toll-like receptors (TLRs) to detect pathogen-associated molecular patterns--including bacterial cell wall components, such as lipopolysaccharide or lipoteichoic acid, and viral nucleic acids, such as(More)
Transcription factor, nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), is required for osteoclast formation in vivo and mice lacking both of the NF-kappaB p50 and p52 proteins are osteopetrotic. Here we address the relative roles of the two catalytic subunits of the IkappaB kinase (IKK) complex that mediate NF-kappaB activation, IKKalpha and IKKbeta, in osteoclast(More)