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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are activated by pathogen-associated molecular patterns to induce innate immune responses and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interferons and anti-inflammatory cytokines. TLRs activate downstream effectors through adaptors that contain Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domains, but the mechanisms accounting for(More)
Macrophages are pivotal constituents of the innate immune system, vital for recognition and elimination of microbial pathogens. Macrophages use Toll-like receptors (TLRs) to detect pathogen-associated molecular patterns--including bacterial cell wall components, such as lipopolysaccharide or lipoteichoic acid, and viral nucleic acids, such as(More)
Variants of NOD2, an intracellular sensor of bacteria-derived muramyl dipeptide (MDP), increase susceptibility to Crohn's disease (CD). These variants are thought to be defective in activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) and antibacterial defenses, but CD clinical specimens display elevated NF-kappaB activity. To illuminate the pathophysiological(More)
CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) are potent immune stimuli being developed for use as adjuvants in different species. Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is the cellular receptor for CpG-ODN in mammalian cells. The CpG-ODN with 18-24 deoxynucleotides that are in current use for human and mouse cells, however, have low activity with rabbit TLR9. Using a(More)
IKKbeta-dependent NF-kappaB activation plays a key role in innate immunity and inflammation, and inhibition of IKKbeta has been considered as a likely anti-inflammatory therapy. Surprisingly, however, mice with a targeted IKKbeta deletion in myeloid cells are more susceptible to endotoxin-induced shock than control mice. Increased endotoxin susceptibility(More)
Transcription factor, nuclear factor ␬ B (NF-␬ B), is required for osteoclast formation in vivo and mice lacking both of the NF-␬ B p50 and p52 proteins are osteopetrotic. Here we address the relative roles of the two catalytic subunits of the I ␬ B kinase (IKK) complex that mediate NF-␬ B activation, IKK ␣ and IKK ␤ , in osteoclast formation and(More)
Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a leading human bacterial pathogen capable of producing invasive infections even in previously healthy individuals. As frontline components of host innate defense, macrophages play a key role in control and clearance of GAS infections. We find GAS induces rapid, dose-dependent apoptosis of primary and cultured macrophages and(More)
Transcription factor NF-κB and its activating kinase IKKβ are associated with inflammation and are believed to be critical for innate immunity. Despite the likelihood of immune suppression, pharmacological blockade of IKKβ-NF-κB has been considered as a therapeutic strategy. However, we found neutrophilia in mice with inducible deletion of IKKβ (Ikkβ(Δ)(More)
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of invasive bacterial infections in human newborns and immune-compromised adults. The pore-forming toxin (PFT) β hemolysin/cytolysin (βh/c) is a major virulence factor for GBS, which is generally attributed to its cytolytic functions. Here we show βh/c has immunomodulatory properties on macrophages at sub-lytic(More)
SUMMARY IKKb-dependent NF-kB activation plays a key role in innate immunity and inflammation, and inhibition of IKKb has been considered as a likely anti-inflammatory therapy. Surprisingly, however, mice with a targeted IKKb deletion in myeloid cells are more susceptible to endo-toxin-induced shock than control mice. Increased endotoxin susceptibility is(More)