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Arsenic, a common environmental pollutant, is toxic to many mammalian cells. However, the arsenic-induced toxicity to aquatic animal species is unclear. This study attempted to compare the arsenic-induced cytotoxicity in various fish cells. Two fish cell lines, JF (fin cells of Therapon jarbua) and TO-2 cells (ovary cells of Tilapia), were treated with(More)
Delivery of genes or macromolecules to cardiovascular tissues provides new therapeutic opportunities for the treatment of many acquired and inherited diseases. To investigate electroporation as a delivery method in cardiac tissue, embryonic chick hearts were studied for uptake of propidium iodide (PI) or DNA encoding either green fluorescent protein (GFP)(More)
Although the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) functions as an important signaling complex in many cellular processes, the role of mTORC1 in neurons derived from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) has been less explored. Here, using a modified protocol to differentiate mouse ESCs (mESCs) into almost uniform glutamatergic neurons, we explored the(More)
Phasic bursting in the hypoglossal nerve can be uncoupled from phrenic bursting by application of positive end-expired pressure (PEEP). We wished to determine whether similar uncoupling can also be induced in other respiratory-modulated upper airway (UAW) motor outputs. Discharge of the facial, hypoglossal, superior laryngeal, recurrent laryngeal, and(More)
Spinal cerebellar ataxia type 12 (SCA12) has been attributed to the elevated expression of ppp2r2b. To better elucidate the pathomechanism of the neuronal disorder and to search for a pharmacological treatment, Drosophila models of SCA12 were generated by overexpression of a human ppp2r2b and its Drosophila homolog tws. Ectopic expression of ppp2r2b or tws(More)
A standard extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb761) has been used in the treatment of various common geriatric complaints including vertigo, short-term memory loss, hearing loss, lack of attention, or vigilance. We demonstrated that acute systemic administration of EGb761 facilitated the acquisition of conditioned fear. Many studies suggest the neural mechanism(More)
The multifunctional protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a heterotrimeric serine/threonine protein phosphatase composed of a scaffolding, catalytic and regulatory subunits. By modifying various downstream signal transducers, the aberrant expression of the brain-targeted regulatory subunit PPP2R2B is associated with the onset of a panel of neuronal disorders.(More)
Neurons derived from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have gained great merit in both basic research and regenerative medicine. Here we review and summarize the signaling pathways that have been reported to be involved in the neuronal differentiation of ESCs, particularly those associated with in vitro differentiation. The inducers and pathways explored include(More)
Much effort is being marshaled to generate uniform neuronal populations from embryonic stem (ES) cells, but a completely reliable method has yet to be developed. Here we modified and established a method that brings us closer to this goal. By examining many parameters, we found that the optimal timing of applying a freshly made trypsin/EDTA(More)
The ocellar L-neurons of cockroach Periplaneta americana were used in the present study as model systems to investigate the pharmacological properties of the GABA receptors. To do so, a glass microelectrode was impaled into the axon of the L-neurons to record the membrane potential intracellularly and to monitor membrane response to GABA treatment and(More)