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Motor actions of myosin were directly visualized by electron tomography of insect flight muscle quick-frozen during contraction. In 3D images, active cross-bridges are usually single myosin heads, bound preferentially to actin target zones sited midway between troponins. Active attached bridges (approximately 30% of all heads) depart markedly in axial and(More)
SUMMARY A statistical technique is developed for wind field mapping that can be used to improve either the assimilation of surface wind observations into a model initial field or the accuracy of post-processing algorithms run on meteorological model output. The observed wind field at any particular location is treated as a function of the true (but unknown)(More)
We have recently demonstrated that reactive glial cells can be directly reprogrammed into functional neurons by a single neural transcription factor, NeuroD1. Here we report that a combination of small molecules can also reprogram human astrocytes in culture into fully functional neurons. We demonstrate that sequential exposure of human astrocytes to a(More)
Hepatic fibrosis is concomitant with sinusoidal pathological angiogenesis, which has been highlighted as novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of chronic liver disease. Our prior studies have demonstrated that curcumin has potent antifibrotic activity, but the mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The current work demonstrated that curcumin ameliorated(More)
Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is a pivotal event in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. Pharmacological induction of HSC apoptosis could be a promising strategy for fibrosis regression. Natural product tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) exhibits potent antifibrotic activities in vivo. However, the molecular mechanisms remain to be defined. The present(More)
Detecting spatial outliers can help identify significant anomalies in spatial data sequences. In the field of meteorological data processing, spatial outliers are frequently associated with natural disasters such as tornadoes and hurricanes. Previous studies on spatial outliers mainly focused on identifying single location points over a static data frame.(More)
BACKGROUND The identification of new high-sensitivity and high-specificity markers for HCC are essential. We aimed to identify serum microRNAs (miRNAs) as biomarkers to be used in diagnosing hepatitis B virus (HBV) -related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS We investigated serum miRNA expression in (261 HCC patients, 233 cirrhosis patients, and 173(More)
Environmental stress is among the most important contributors to increased susceptibility to develop psychiatric disorders, including anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. While even acute stress alters gene expression, the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes remain largely unknown. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is a novel environmentally(More)