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This study was performed to determine whether endothelial-monocyte-activating polypeptide (EMAP) II increases the permeability of the blood-tumor barrier (BTB) in the rat model of C6 glioma, and whether EMAP II opens the BTB by affecting tight junction (TJ) associated proteins zonula occluden-1 (ZO-1), occludin and claudin-5. The rats were divided into(More)
Gliomas, the most malignant form of brain tumors, contain a small subpopulation of glioma stem cells (GSCs) that are implicated in therapeutic resistance and tumor recurrence. Topoisomerase I inhibitors, shikonin and topotecan, play a crucial role in anti-cancer therapies. After isolated and identified the GSCs from glioma cells successfully, U251, U87,(More)
The present study was performed to examine whether Endothelial-monocyte-activating polypeptide II (EMAP II) could inhibit glioma growth by inducing rat brain glioma C6 cells apoptosis. The results revealed that the EMAP II decreased cell viability of rat C6 glioma cells in a time-dependent manner. Apoptotic proportion was increased gradually after EMAP II.(More)
Bradykinin (BK) has been shown to open blood-tumor barrier (BTB) selectively and to increase permeability of the BTB transiently, but the mechanism is unclear. This study was performed to determine whether BK opens the BTB by affecting the tight junction (TJ)-associated proteins zonula occluden-1 (ZO-1), occludin, and caludin-5 and cytoskeleton protein(More)
The purpose of the present study was to determine the potential for RhoA/ROCK signaling to play a role in endothelial-monocyte-activating polypeptide (EMAP) II-induced increase in blood–tumor barrier (BTB) permeability in rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (RBMECs). In the present study, we used an in vitro BTB model, a RhoA inhibitor (C3 exoenzyme)(More)
Bradykinin (BK) increases the permeability of the blood-tumor barrier (BTB) selectively through the transcellular pathway; however, the role of the caveolae structural proteins caveolin-1 and caveolin-2 in this process has not been precisely elucidated. Thus, this study was performed to examine whether caveolin-1 and caveolin-2 are involved in the(More)
Low-dose endothelial monocyte-activating polypeptide-II (EMAP-II) can selectively increase blood–tumor barrier (BTB) permeability via the paracellular pathway. The role of the transcellular pathway in this process is unclear. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential involvement of the transcellular pathway in EMAP-II-induced opening of the BTB and(More)
Our previous studies have demonstrated that both the RhoA/Rho kinase and the protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathways are involved in the low-dose endothelial monocyte-activating polypeptide-II (EMAP-II)-induced blood–tumor barrier (BTB) opening. In the present study, an in vitro BTB model was used to investigate which isoforms of PKC were involved in this(More)
After demonstrating bradykinin (BK) could increase the permeability of blood-tumor barrier (BTB) via opening the tight junction (TJ), and that the possible mechanism is unclear, we demonstrated that BK could increase the expressions of eNOS and nNOS and promote ZONAB translocation into nucleus. NOS inhibitors l-NAME and 7-NI could effectively block the(More)
This study investigates the effect of insulin combined with idebenone on blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in experimental streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats as well as the underlying mechanisms. With a diabetic rat model, we show that insulin and idebenone normalize body weight and water intake and restore BBB permeability and that their combination(More)