Leyre Castro

Edward A Wasserman24
Edward A. Wasserman6
24Edward A Wasserman
6Edward A. Wasserman
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It is said that "absence makes the heart grow fonder." But, when and why does an absent event become salient to the heart or to the brain? An absent event may become salient when its nonoccurrence is surprising. Van Hamme and Wasserman (1994) found that a nonpresented but expected stimulus can actually change its associative status-and in the opposite(More)
Four pigeons discriminated whether a target spot appeared on a colored figural shape or on a differently colored background by first pecking the target and then reporting its location: on the figure or the background. We recorded three dependent variables: target detection time, choice response time, and choice accuracy. The birds were faster to detect the(More)
We explored college students' discrimination of complex visual stimuli that involvedmultiple-item displays. The items in each of the displays could be all the same, all different, or diverse mixtures of some same and some different items. The participants had to learn which of two arbitrary responses was correct for each of the displays without being told(More)
Prior research suggests that variability discrimination is basic to same-different conceptualization (Young and Wasserman, 2001). In that research, people were trained with 16-item arrays; this training might have encouraged people to use perceptual variability to solve the task. Here, two groups of participants were trained with either 2- or 16-item Same(More)
Most theoretical accounts of backward blocking place heavy stress on the necessity of the target cue having been trained in compound with the competing cue to produce a decrement in responding. Yet, other evidence suggests that a similar reduction in responding to the target cue can be observed when the outcome is later paired with a novel cue never trained(More)
Abstract or relational stimulus processing requires an organism to appreciate the interrelations between or among two or more stimuli (e.g., same or different, less than or greater than). In the current study, we explored the role of concrete and abstract information processing in pigeons performing a visual categorization task which could be solved by(More)
Most theories and experimental investigations of discrimination learning and categorization, in both humans and animals, hypothesize that attention must be allocated to the relevant attributes of the training stimuli for learning to occur. Attention has conventionally been inferred after learning has transpired rather than examined while learning is(More)
Same-different categorization is a fundamental feat of human cognition. Although birds and nonhuman primates readily learn same-different discriminations and successfully transfer them to novel stimuli, no such demonstration exists for rats. Using a spatial discrimination learning task, we show that rats can both learn to discriminate arrays of visual(More)
Because of the importance of the sense of sameness for psychological science and because of the tenuous support for this notion in pigeons’ matching-to-sample behavior, we experimentally explored the possibly special status of sameness for pigeons. Using photographs from three different natural categories (dogs, fish, and flowers) in a three-alternative(More)
Pavlov and Thorndike pioneered the experimental study of animal learning and provided psychologists with powerful tools to unveil its underlying mechanisms. Today's research developments and theoretical analyses owe much to the pioneering work of these early investigators. Nevertheless, in the evolution of our knowledge about animal learning, some initial(More)