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In this paper, we present algorithms that perform gradient ascent of the average reward in a partially observable Markov decision process (ÈÇÅÅÈ). These algorithms are based on ÈÇÅÅÈ, an algorithm introduced in a companion paper (Baxter & Bartlett, 2001), which computes biased estimates of the performance gradient in ÈÇÅÅÈs. The algorithm's chief advantages(More)
In this paper we present TDLEAF(), a variation on the TD() algorithm that enables it to be used in conjunction with game-tree search. We present some experiments in which our chess program " KnightCap " used TDLEAF() to learn its evaluation function while playing on Internet chess servers. The main success we report is that KnightCap improved from a 1650(More)
Changes in milk production associated with occurrence of clinical diseases (dystocia, stillbirth, twin births, milk fever, retained placenta, displaced abomasum, limping due to foot lesions, metritis, ketosis, and mastitis) were investigated. Data were collected daily on 388 lactation. Stepwise least squares regression was used to evaluate existence of(More)
In this paper we present TDLeaf(λ), a variation on the TD(λ) algorithm that enables it to be used in conjunction with game-tree search. We present some experiments in which our chess program " KnightCap " used TDLeaf(λ) to learn its evaluation function while playing on the Free Internet Chess Server (FICS, fics.onenet.net). The main success we report is(More)
To facilitate clinical applications of retroviral-mediated human gene transfer, retroviral vectors must be of high titer and free of detectable replication-competent retroviruses. The purpose of this study was to optimize methods of retroviral vector production and transduction. Studies were conducted using 22 retroviral vector producer cell lines.(More)
Aspects of the metabolism and health of 63 cows which had been treated with different amounts of bovine somatotrophin (BST) daily in the preceding lactation and 25 control cows were studied. The aims of the study were first, to identify cows with ketotic conditions, either by measurements of blood metabolite concentrations or by clinical observations,(More)
The reproductive performance of 156 cows treated with recombinant bST for two consecutive lactations was assessed as part of a target animal safety study conducted in the San Joaquín Valley of central California. Daily intramuscular administration of 17.2, 51.6, and 86 mg of bST per cow started at d 70 postpartum and ended at dry-off or 305 d postpartum.(More)
Intervals from calving to conception in cows treated for two lactations with recombinant bST were ascertained using survival analysis methods. Daily intramuscular administration of placebo, 17.2, 51.6, or 86 mg of bST per cow started at d 70 postpartum and ended at culling or drying off. Breeding began at d 70 postpartum. Multiparous cows treated during the(More)
Reproductive performance in cows exposed for two lactations to recombinant bST was measured using unconditional logistic regression. Intramuscular administration of 17.2, 51.6, and 86 mg of recombinant bST/d per cow started at d 70 postpartum and ended at dry-off or 305 d postpartum. Performance was measured as the cumulative incidence of cows becoming(More)