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In this paper, we present algorithms that perform gradient ascent of the average reward in a partially observable Markov decision process (ÈÇÅÅÈ). These algorithms are based on ÈÇÅÅÈ, an algorithm introduced in a companion paper (Baxter & Bartlett, 2001), which computes biased estimates of the performance gradient in ÈÇÅÅÈs. The algorithm's chief advantages(More)
In this paper we present TDLEAF(), a variation on the TD() algorithm that enables it to be used in conjunction with game-tree search. We present some experiments in which our chess program " KnightCap " used TDLEAF() to learn its evaluation function while playing on Internet chess servers. The main success we report is that KnightCap improved from a 1650(More)
Changes in milk production associated with occurrence of clinical diseases (dystocia, stillbirth, twin births, milk fever, retained placenta, displaced abomasum, limping due to foot lesions, metritis, ketosis, and mastitis) were investigated. Data were collected daily on 388 lactation. Stepwise least squares regression was used to evaluate existence of(More)
To facilitate clinical applications of retroviral-mediated human gene transfer, retroviral vectors must be of high titer and free of detectable replication-competent retroviruses. The purpose of this study was to optimize methods of retroviral vector production and transduction. Studies were conducted using 22 retroviral vector producer cell lines.(More)
In this paper we present TDLeaf(λ), a variation on the TD(λ) algorithm that enables it to be used in conjunction with game-tree search. We present some experiments in which our chess program " KnightCap " used TDLeaf(λ) to learn its evaluation function while playing on the Free Internet Chess Server (FICS, fics.onenet.net). The main success we report is(More)
The economic benefits of treating lactating cows for Streptococcus agalactiae mastitis were studied at a large (689 milking cows) central California dairy. Postcure milk production of case cows (infected, treated, and cured) was compared with production of paired control cows (uninfected) and was matched for yield, days in milk, days in gestation, and(More)
Depressed T cell immunity is a universal characteristic of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In the present study, 25 patients with AIDS and opportunistic infections, 22 individuals with AIDS-related complex (ARC, or chronic lymphadenopathy syndrome), and 20 healthy homosexuals were evaluated by means of the T cell colony assay. Forty-seven(More)
While replication-defective retroviral vectors provide excellent vehicles for the long-term expression of therapeutic genes, they also harbor the potential to induce undesired genetic changes by random insertions into the host genome. The rate of insertional mutagenesis for retroviral vectors has been determined in several different assay systems; however,(More)
Aspects of the metabolism and health of 63 cows which had been treated with different amounts of bovine somatotrophin (BST) daily in the preceding lactation and 25 control cows were studied. The aims of the study were first, to identify cows with ketotic conditions, either by measurements of blood metabolite concentrations or by clinical observations,(More)