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Survival rates have greatly improved in recent years for infants of borderline viability; however, these infants remain at risk of developing a wide array of complications, not only in the neonatal unit, but also in the long term. Morbidity is inversely related to gestational age; however, there is no gestational age, including term, that is wholly exempt.(More)
BACKGROUND Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is associated with ventilation and oxygen treatment. This randomized trial investigated whether nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), rather than intubation and ventilation, shortly after birth would reduce the rate of death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia in very preterm infants. METHODS We randomly(More)
BACKGROUND Methylxanthines reduce the frequency of apnea of prematurity and the need for mechanical ventilation during the first seven days of therapy. It is uncertain whether methylxanthines have other short- and long-term benefits or risks in infants with very low birth weight. METHODS We randomly assigned 2006 infants with birth weights of 500 to 1250(More)
CONTEXT The outcome into school age of regional cohorts of children born in the 1990s with birth weights less than 1000 g (extremely low birth weight, ELBW) or earlier than 28 weeks' gestation (very preterm) is not known. OBJECTIVE To determine the cognitive, educational, and behavioral outcome of ELBW or very preterm infants born in the 1990s compared(More)
BACKGROUND Infants born preterm are at increased risk of adverse health and developmental outcomes. Mortality and morbidity after preterm birth impose a burden on finite public sector resources. This study considers the economic consequences of preterm birth from birth to adult life and compares the costs accruing to those born preterm with those born at(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare preterm (PT) and full-term (FT) infant hippocampal volumes and to investigate the relations among PT hippocampal volume, perinatal risk factors, and neurodevelopmental outcome. METHODS A total of 184 PT and 32 full-term infants underwent magnetic resonance imaging at term equivalent age with manual segmentation of the hippocampi on(More)
This systematic review evaluates assessments used to discriminate, predict, or evaluate the motor development of preterm infants during the first year of life. Eighteen assessments were identified; nine met the inclusion criteria. The Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS), Bayley Scale of Infant and Toddler Development -- Version III, Peabody Developmental(More)
BACKGROUND Epidemiological and basic science evidence suggests that magnesium sulphate before birth may be neuroprotective for the fetus. OBJECTIVES To assess the effectiveness and safety of magnesium sulphate as a neuroprotective agent when given to women considered at risk of preterm birth. SEARCH STRATEGY We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and(More)
The corpus callosum is the largest white matter tract, important for interhemispheric communication. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare corpus callosum size, shape and diffusion characteristics in 106 very preterm infants and 22 full-term infants. Structural and diffusion magnetic resonance images were obtained at term equivalent. The(More)
Neuroanatomical structure appears to be altered in preterm infants, but there has been little insight into the major perinatal risk factors associated with regional cerebral structural alterations. MR images were taken to quantitatively compare regional brain tissue volumes between term and preterm infants and to investigate associations between perinatal(More)