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Aubert and Foerster (1857) are frequently cited for having shown that the lower visual acuity of peripheral vision can be compensated for by increasing stimulus size. This result is seemingly consistent with the concept of cortical magnification, and it has been confirmed by many subsequent authors. Yet it is rarely noted that Aubert and Foerster also(More)
The sense of form is poor in indirect view. Yet the cortical magnification theory asserts that the disadvantage can be made up by scaling the image size according to the spatial variation in the mapping of the retina onto the cortex. It is thus assumed that all visual information passes through a functionally homogeneous neural circuitry, with the spatial(More)
Astrocytes and microglia in the spinal cord have recently been reported to contribute to the development of peripheral inflammation-induced exaggerated pain states. Both lowering of thermal pain threshold (thermal hyperalgesia) and lowering of response threshold to light tactile stimuli (mechanical allodynia) have been reported. The notion that spinal cord(More)
This paper evaluates the use of a maximum-likelihood adaptive staircase psychophysical procedure (ML-PEST), originally developed in vision and audition, for measuring detection thresholds in gustation and olfaction. The basis for the psychophysical measurement of thresholds with the ML-PEST procedure is developed. Then, two experiments and four simulations(More)
Scotopic contrast sensitivity functions (CSFs) were measured for 50 observers between the ages of 20 and 88 years. Using a maximum-likelihood, 2-alternative, temporal forced-choice threshold-estimation algorithm, scotopic CSFs were measured at 7 spatial frequencies ranging from 0.2 to 3.0 cpd, with mean retinal illuminance equated for observers at -0.85 log(More)
Noise and distortion reduce speech intelligibility and quality in audio devices such as hearing aids. This study investigates the perception and prediction of sound quality by both normal-hearing and hearing-impaired subjects for conditions of noise and distortion related to those found in hearing aids. Stimuli were sentences subjected to three kinds of(More)
The relationship between Fourier spectra of visual textures (represented both by the actual frequency components and by the response of four hypothetical channels selectively sensitive to spatial frequency) and the perceptual appearance of the textures was investigated. Thirty textures were synthesized by combining seven spatial frequencies whose amplitudes(More)
The hypothesis that the two cerebral hemispheres are specialized for processing different visual spatial frequencies was investigated in three experiments. No differences between the left and right visual fields were found for: (1) contrast-sensitivity functions measured binocularly with vertical gratings ranging from 0.5 to 12 cycles per degree (cpd); (2)(More)