Lewis Markoff

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RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRPs) of the Flaviviridae family catalyze replication of positive (+)- strand viral RNA through synthesis of minus (-)-and progeny (+)-strand RNAs. West Nile virus (WNV), a mosquito-borne member, is a rapidly re-emerging human pathogen in the United States since its first outbreak in 1999. To study the replication of the WNV(More)
To study the membrane orientation of flavivirus non-structural proteins (NSPs) in the replication complex, the seven major West Nile (WN) NSPs were separately expressed in monkey cells, and their subcellular localization was investigated by imaging-based techniques. First, we observed by confocal microscopy that four small transmembrane proteins (TP) (NS2A,(More)
Genomes of RNA viruses encounter a continual threat from host cellular ribonucleases. Therefore, viruses have evolved mechanisms to protect the integrity of their genomes. To study the mechanism of 3'-end repair in dengue virus-2 in mammalian cells, a series of 3'-end deletions in the genome were evaluated for virus replication by detection of viral antigen(More)
Yellow fever (YF), can be prevented by an attenuated vaccine (YEL). We reviewed neurologic adverse events (AE) following YEL that were reported to the national Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS). VAERS is a passive reporting system with inherent limitations for causality assessment. Based on defined criteria, five cases of encephalitis were(More)
Viral replicases of many positive-strand RNA viruses are membrane-bound complexes of cellular and viral proteins that include viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP). The in vitro RdRP assay system that utilizes cytoplasmic extracts from dengue viral-infected cells and exogenous RNA templates was developed to understand the mechanism of viral replication(More)
DNA sequences (approximately 11,000 nucleotides) representing the full-length genome of the dengue virus type 4 were cloned. The sequence of the first 2,429 nucleotides at the 5' terminus which includes the coding region for the structural proteins is presented. The virion structural proteins are encoded in one long open reading frame specifying a(More)
We recently described the derivation of a dengue serotype 2 virus (DEN2mutF) that exhibited a host range-restricted phenotype; it was severely impaired for replication in cultured mosquito cells (C6/36 cells). DEN2mutF virus had selected mutations in genomic sequences predicted to form a 3' stem-loop structure (3'-SL) that is conserved among all flavivirus(More)
The Delta30 deletion mutation, which was originally created in dengue virus type 4 (DEN4) by the removal of nucleotides 172 to 143 from the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR), was introduced into a homologous region of wild-type (wt) dengue virus type 1 (DEN1). The resulting virus, rDEN1Delta30, was attenuated in rhesus monkeys to a level similar to that of(More)
We initially studied requirements for 5' and 3' terminal regions (TRs) in flavivirus negative strand synthesis in vitro. Purified West Nile (WNV) and dengue-2 (DV2) RNA polymerases were both active with all-WNV or all-DV2 subgenomic RNAs containing the 5'- and 3'TRs of the respective genomes. However, subgenomic RNAs in which the 5'-noncoding region (5'NCR)(More)