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BACKGROUND Before the introduction of the conjugate vaccines, Haemophilus influenzae type b was the major cause of bacterial meningitis in the United States, and meningitis was primarily a disease of infants and young children. We describe the epidemiologic features of bacterial meningitis five years after the H. influenzae type b conjugate vaccines were(More)
Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs) is a collaboration between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and several state health departments and universities participating in the Emerging Infections Program Network. ABCs conducts population-based active surveillance, collects isolates, and performs studies of invasive disease caused by(More)
BACKGROUND Group B streptococcal infections are a leading cause of neonatal mortality, and they also affect pregnant women and the elderly. Many cases of the disease in newborns can be prevented by the administration of prophylactic intrapartum antibiotics. In the 1990s, prevention efforts increased. In 1996, consensus guidelines recommended use of either a(More)
BACKGROUND The emergence of drug-resistant strains of bacteria has complicated treatment decisions and may lead to treatment failures. METHODS We examined data on invasive pneumococcal disease in patients identified from 1995 to 1998 in the Active Bacterial Core Surveillance program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Pneumococci that had a(More)
OBJECTIVES This study examined epidemiologic factors affecting mortality from pneumococcal pneumonia in 1995 through 1997. METHODS Persons residing in a surveillance area who had community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization and Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from a sterile site were included in the analysis. Factors affecting mortality were(More)
New meningococcal vaccines are undergoing clinical trials, and changes in the epidemiologic features of meningococcal disease will affect their use. Active laboratory-based, population-based US surveillance for meningococcal disease during 1992-1996 was used to project that 2400 cases of meningococcal disease occurred annually. Incidence was highest in(More)
OBJECTIVE To identify risk factors for invasive pneumococcal disease, including penicillin-resistant infections, among children 2 to 59 months of age. DESIGN Case-control study. PARTICIPANTS Patients with invasive pneumococcal infections identified by population-based surveillance (n = 187) and controls identified through random-digit telephone dialing(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) exhibits extensive genomic and antigenic diversity, which is thought to contribute to the failure of the host's immune response to control infection and prevent clinical progression. Part of this failure may be due to utilization by the virus of antigenic variation as a means to escape protective immune responses.(More)