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BACKGROUND The HIV Dementia Scale (HDS) and International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) are brief tools that have been developed to screen for and aid diagnosis of HIV-associated dementia (HAD). They are increasingly being used in clinical practice for minor neurocognitive disorder (MND) as well as HAD, despite uncertainty about their accuracy. METHODS AND(More)
1. The acute effects of neurotrophic factors on the frequency of spontaneous transmitter release (miniature endplate potentials (MEPPs)) from motor nerve terminals has been examined in skeletal muscles of neonatal mice aged between 9 and 20 days. The following factors were tested at a concentration of 50 ng ml-1: brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF),(More)
Unilateral ventrolateral (VL) thalamotomy for medically refractory tremorigenic movement disorders (MD) was performed in 9 patients with established multiple sclerosis. All patients had abolition of their coarse action/kinetic tremor with improvement in arm and hand function. In two patients some intention tremor either remained or was unmasked. Target(More)
BACKGROUND To determine the prevalence of neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in UK HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants were recruited to a cross-sectional study from 2 London clinics and completed computer-assisted neuropsychological tests and questionnaires of depression, anxiety,(More)
BACKGROUND Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a widely recognised complication of antiretroviral therapy (ART), but there are still limited data from resource-limited settings. Our objective was to characterize the incidence, clinical spectrum, risk factors and contribution to mortality of IRIS in two urban ART clinics in South Africa. (More)
There are two major reasons to diagnose asymptomatic HIV infection: to facilitate timely initiation of antiretroviral therapy, and to reduce the chance of onward transmission. A negative test offers an opportunity for preventive health promotion. All these aspects of testing require follow up by suitably trained personnel. We describe a case illustrating(More)
The central nervous system has been proposed as a sanctuary site where HIV can escape antiretroviral control and develop drug resistance. HIV-1 RNA can be at higher levels in CSF than plasma, termed CSF/plasma discordance. We aimed to examine whether discordance in CSF is associated with low level viraemia (LLV) in blood. In this MRC-funded multicentre(More)
OBJECTIVES An increasing proportion of people living with HIV are older adults, who may require specialized care. Adverse physical and psychological effects of HIV infection may be greatest among older people or those who have lived longer with HIV. METHODS The ASTRA study is a cross-sectional questionnaire study of 3258 HIV-diagnosed adults (2248 men who(More)
INTRODUCTION HIV-1 RNA can be found at higher levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) than in plasma, termed CSF/plasma discordance. The clinical significance of CSF/plasma discordance is not known and the degree of discordance considered important varies. We aimed to determine whether a panel of CSF cytokines, chemokines and associated mediators were raised in(More)
We estimated the burden of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in a UK clinic. From a random sample, and referrals to specialist services over one year (neurology, clinical psychology, hospital admissions), we determined whether patients were diagnosed with HIV-associated dementia (HAD) and whether they reported symptoms suggesting neurocognitive(More)
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