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Cryptococcal immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) may present as a clinical worsening or new presentation of cryptococcal disease after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART), and is thought to be caused by recovery of cryptococcus-specific immune responses. We have reviewed reports of cryptococcal IRIS and have developed a consensus case(More)
The central nervous system has been proposed as a sanctuary site where HIV can escape antiretroviral control and develop drug resistance. HIV-1 RNA can be at higher levels in CSF than plasma, termed CSF/plasma discordance. We aimed to examine whether discordance in CSF is associated with low level viraemia (LLV) in blood. In this MRC-funded multicentre(More)
INTRODUCTION HIV-1 RNA can be found at higher levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) than in plasma, termed CSF/plasma discordance. The clinical significance of CSF/plasma discordance is not known and the degree of discordance considered important varies. We aimed to determine whether a panel of CSF cytokines, chemokines and associated mediators were raised in(More)
BACKGROUND The HIV Dementia Scale (HDS) and International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) are brief tools that have been developed to screen for and aid diagnosis of HIV-associated dementia (HAD). They are increasingly being used in clinical practice for minor neurocognitive disorder (MND) as well as HAD, despite uncertainty about their accuracy. METHODS AND(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in women in an antenatal clinic in the South Pacific island nation of Vanuatu. STUDY DESIGN A prevalence survey of sexually transmitted infections of pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic at Vila Central Hospital was(More)
White matter (WM) abnormalities are frequently seen on brain MRI of HIV positive (HIV+) patients. We aimed to determine the prevalence of unexplained WM abnormalities and their associations with HIV disease and cardiovascular risk factors. We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional study of brain MRI of HIV+ patients conducted between 2004 and 2009 at(More)
1. The acute effects of neurotrophic factors on the frequency of spontaneous transmitter release (miniature endplate potentials (MEPPs)) from motor nerve terminals has been examined in skeletal muscles of neonatal mice aged between 9 and 20 days. The following factors were tested at a concentration of 50 ng ml-1: brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF),(More)
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The criteria for the diagnosis of non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) on a Gram stained urethral smear are derived from previous studies which used culture as a diagnostic test for Chlamydia trachomatis. Our objectives were (1). to re-assess the relation between urethral polymorph count and C trachomatis infection, using ligase chain(More)
BACKGROUND There is no validated case definition for human immunodeficiency virus-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). We measured the level of agreement of 2 published case definitions (hereafter referred to as CD1 and CD2) with expert opinion in a prospective cohort of patients who were starting antiretroviral therapy in South(More)
OBJECTIVE To identify inflammatory biomarker profiles during paradoxical and unmasking tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS), and determine whether differences in biomarkers prior to antiretroviral therapy (ART) predict subsequent development of TB-IRIS. DESIGN Case-control study within a cohort of patients(More)