Lewis John Haddow

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Cryptococcal immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) may present as a clinical worsening or new presentation of cryptococcal disease after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART), and is thought to be caused by recovery of cryptococcus-specific immune responses. We have reviewed reports of cryptococcal IRIS and have developed a consensus case(More)
BACKGROUND Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a widely recognised complication of antiretroviral therapy (ART), but there are still limited data from resource-limited settings. Our objective was to characterize the incidence, clinical spectrum, risk factors and contribution to mortality of IRIS in two urban ART clinics in South Africa. (More)
1. The acute effects of neurotrophic factors on the frequency of spontaneous transmitter release (miniature endplate potentials (MEPPs)) from motor nerve terminals has been examined in skeletal muscles of neonatal mice aged between 9 and 20 days. The following factors were tested at a concentration of 50 ng ml-1: brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF),(More)
BACKGROUND There is no validated case definition for human immunodeficiency virus-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). We measured the level of agreement of 2 published case definitions (hereafter referred to as CD1 and CD2) with expert opinion in a prospective cohort of patients who were starting antiretroviral therapy in South(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in women in an antenatal clinic in the South Pacific island nation of Vanuatu. STUDY DESIGN A prevalence survey of sexually transmitted infections of pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic at Vila Central Hospital was(More)
The central nervous system has been proposed as a sanctuary site where HIV can escape antiretroviral control and develop drug resistance. HIV-1 RNA can be at higher levels in CSF than plasma, termed CSF/plasma discordance. We aimed to examine whether discordance in CSF is associated with low level viraemia (LLV) in blood. In this MRC-funded multicentre(More)
OBJECTIVE To identify inflammatory biomarker profiles during paradoxical and unmasking tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS), and determine whether differences in biomarkers prior to antiretroviral therapy (ART) predict subsequent development of TB-IRIS. DESIGN Case-control study within a cohort of patients(More)
  • L J Haddow, A Bunn, +4 authors S T Sadiq
  • Sexually transmitted infections
  • 2004
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The criteria for the diagnosis of non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) on a Gram stained urethral smear are derived from previous studies which used culture as a diagnostic test for Chlamydia trachomatis. Our objectives were (1). to re-assess the relation between urethral polymorph count and C trachomatis infection, using ligase chain(More)
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE Recent studies suggest that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is becoming more common as a cause for genital herpes, relative to HSV-2. We aimed to calculate trends in HSV type from isolates and serology samples sent to a reference virology laboratory in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. METHODS We compared the proportions of HSV-1(More)
BACKGROUND The HIV Dementia Scale (HDS) and International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) are brief tools that have been developed to screen for and aid diagnosis of HIV-associated dementia (HAD). They are increasingly being used in clinical practice for minor neurocognitive disorder (MND) as well as HAD, despite uncertainty about their accuracy. METHODS AND(More)