Learn More
NHANES III measured serum TSH, total serum T(4), antithyroperoxidase (TPOAb), and antithyroglobulin (TgAb) antibodies from a sample of 17,353 people aged > or =12 yr representing the geographic and ethnic distribution of the U.S. population. These data provide a reference for other studies of these analytes in the U.S. For the 16,533 people who did not(More)
CONTEXT The recognition of thyroid microcarcinoma has increased due to the widespread use of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsies. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to describe histological and clinical characteristics of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) less than or equal to 1 cm. DESIGN This study was a retrospective(More)
Iodine deficiency in a population causes increased prevalence of goiter and, more importantly, may increase the risk for intellectual deficiency in that population. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys [NHANES I (1971-1974) and (NHANES III (1988-1994)] measured urinary iodine (UI) concentrations. UI concentrations are an indicator of the(More)
CONTEXT Breastfed infants rely on adequate maternal dietary iodine intake. OBJECTIVE Our objective was to measure breast milk iodine and perchlorate, an inhibitor of iodide transport into the thyroid and potentially into breast milk, in Boston-area women. PARTICIPANTS The study included 57 lactating healthy volunteers in the Boston area. MEASUREMENTS(More)
A set of minimum clinical guidelines for use by primary care physicians in the evaluation and management of patients with thyroid nodules or thyroid cancer was developed by consensus by an 11-member Standards of Care Committee (the authors of the article) of the American Thyroid Association, New York, NY. The participants were selected by the committee(More)
Amiodarone hydrochloride, an iodine-rich drug used in the treatment of tachyarrhythmias, is responsible for the development of thyrotoxicosis in approximately 10% of patients who reside in areas of moderate iodine deficiency. Treatment of amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis is difficult since the drug has a prolonged half-life, cardiac decompensation due to(More)
In 1948, Wolff and Chaikoff reported that organic binding of iodide in the thyroid was decreased when plasma iodide levels were elevated (acute Wolff-Chaikoff effect), and that adaptation or escape from the acute effect occurred in approximately 2 days, in the presence of continued high plasma iodide concentrations. We later demonstrated that the escape is(More)
Perchlorate (ClO4) salts are found in rocket fuel, fireworks, and fertilizer. Because of ground water contamination, ClO4 has recently been detected in large public water supplies in several states in the 4-18 microg/L (parts per billion [ppb]) range. The potential adverse effect of chronic low level ClO4 ingestion on thyroid function is of concern to the(More)
Common environmental exposures may affect thyroid function in humans. Foetuses and infants are most vulnerable to these effects because they need thyroid hormone for normal neurodevelopment. Perchlorate, thiocyanate and nitrate are all competitive inhibitors of the sodium/iodine symporter (NIS) in pharmacologic doses, but their effects on human thyroid(More)