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In contrast to normal differentiated cells, which rely primarily on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to generate the energy needed for cellular processes, most cancer cells instead rely on aerobic glycolysis, a phenomenon termed "the Warburg effect." Aerobic glycolysis is an inefficient way to generate adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), however, and(More)
Scansite identifies short protein sequence motifs that are recognized by modular signaling domains, phosphorylated by protein Ser/Thr- or Tyr-kinases or mediate specific interactions with protein or phospholipid ligands. Each sequence motif is represented as a position-specific scoring matrix (PSSM) based on results from oriented peptide library and phage(More)
Phosphorylated lipids are produced at cellular membranes during signaling events and contribute to the recruitment and activation of various signaling components. The role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), which catalyzes the production of phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate, in cell survival pathways; the regulation of gene expression and cell(More)
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase inhibitors gefitinib and erlotinib are effective treatments for lung cancers with EGFR activating mutations, but these tumors invariably develop drug resistance. Here, we describe a gefitinib-sensitive lung cancer cell line that developed resistance to gefitinib as a result of focal amplification of the MET(More)
Many tumour cells have elevated rates of glucose uptake but reduced rates of oxidative phosphorylation. This persistence of high lactate production by tumours in the presence of oxygen, known as aerobic glycolysis, was first noted by Otto Warburg more than 75 yr ago. How tumour cells establish this altered metabolic phenotype and whether it is essential for(More)
Polo-like kinases (Plks) perform crucial functions in cell-cycle progression and multiple stages of mitosis. Plks are characterized by a C-terminal noncatalytic region containing two tandem Polo boxes, termed the Polo-box domain (PBD), which has recently been implicated in phosphodependent substrate targeting. We show that the PBDs of human, Xenopus, and(More)
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks) evolved from a single enzyme that regulates vesicle trafficking in unicellular eukaryotes into a family of enzymes that regulate cellular metabolism and growth in multicellular organisms. In this review, we examine how the PI3K pathway has evolved to control these fundamental processes, and how this pathway is in turn(More)
Mutations in the enzyme cytosolic isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) are a common feature of a major subset of primary human brain cancers. These mutations occur at a single amino acid residue of the IDH1 active site, resulting in loss of the enzyme's ability to catalyse conversion of isocitrate to alpha-ketoglutarate. However, only a single copy of the gene(More)
The Peutz-Jegher syndrome tumor-suppressor gene encodes a protein-threonine kinase, LKB1, which phosphorylates and activates AMPK [adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase]. The deletion of LKB1 in the liver of adult mice resulted in a nearly complete loss of AMPK activity. Loss of LKB1 function resulted in hyperglycemia with increased(More)