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There has been an ongoing controversy over how to decide whether the distribution of species is “random” — i.e., whether it is not greatly different from what it would be if species did not interact. We recently showed (Roberts and Stone (1990)) that in the case of the Vanuatu (formerly New Hebrides) avifauna, the number of islands shared by species pairs(More)
Population cycles that persist in time and are synchronized over space pervade ecological systems, but their underlying causes remain a long-standing enigma. Here we examine the synchronization of complex population oscillations in networks of model communities and in natural systems, where phenomena such as unusual '4- and 10-year cycle' of wildlife are(More)
While a number of theories have been advanced to account for why musical consonance is related to simple frequency ratios, as yet there is no completely satisfying explanation. Here, we explore the theory of synchronization properties of ensembles of coupled neural oscillators to demonstrate why simple frequency ratios may have achieved a special status and(More)
Coral reefs are generally considered to be the most biologically productive of all marine ecosystems, but in recent times these vulnerable aquatic resources have been subject to unusual degradation. The general decline in reefs has been greatly accelerated by mass bleaching in which corals whiten en masse and often fail to recover. Empirical evidence(More)
Theoretical results show that the measles 'pulse' vaccination strategy can be distinguished from the conventional strategies in leading to disease eradication at relatively low values of vaccination. Using the SIR epidemic model we showed that under a planned pulse vaccination regime the system converges to a stable solution with the number of infectious(More)
Recently, excitement has surrounded the application of null-hypothesis approaches for identifying evolutionary design principles in biological, technological, and social networks (1–13) and for classifying diverse networks into distinctive superfamilies (2). Here, we argue that the basic method suggested by Milo et al. (1, 2) often has limitations in(More)
BACKGROUND Genetic studies have often produced conflicting results on the question of whether distant Jewish populations in different geographic locations share greater genetic similarity to each other or instead, to nearby non-Jewish populations. We perform a genome-wide population-genetic study of Jewish populations, analyzing 678 autosomal microsatellite(More)
The isochore theory, proposed nearly three decades ago, depicts the mammalian genome as a mosaic of long, fairly homogeneous genomic regions that are characterized by their guanine and cytosine (GC) content. The human genome, for instance, was claimed to consist of five distinct isochore families: L1, L2, H1, H2, and H3, with GC contents of <37%, 37%-42%,(More)
BACKGROUND Transmission mechanisms of black-band disease (BBD) in coral reefs are poorly understood, although this disease is considered to be one of the most widespread and destructive coral infectious diseases. The major objective of this study was to assess transmission mechanisms of BBD in the field based on the spatio-temporal patterns of the disease.(More)
Cooperation among genetically unrelated individuals is commonly explained by the potential for future reciprocity or by the risk of being punished by group members. However, unconditional altruism is more difficult to explain. We demonstrate that unconditional altruism can evolve as a costly signal of individual quality (i.e. a handicap) as a consequence of(More)