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BACKGROUND Transmission mechanisms of black-band disease (BBD) in coral reefs are poorly understood, although this disease is considered to be one of the most widespread and destructive coral infectious diseases. The major objective of this study was to assess transmission mechanisms of BBD in the field based on the spatio-temporal patterns of the disease.(More)
Synthesising the relationships between complexity, connectivity, and the stability of large biological systems has been a longstanding fundamental quest in theoretical biology and ecology. With the many exciting developments in modern network theory, interest in these issues has recently come to the forefront in a range of multidisciplinary areas. Here we(More)
It is now well appreciated that population structure can have a major impact on disease dynamics, outbreak sizes and epidemic thresholds. Indeed, on some networks, epidemics occur only for sufficiently high transmissibility, whereas in others (e.g. scale-free networks), no such threshold effect exists. While the effects of variability in connectivity are(More)
Seasonality is a driving force that has a major effect on the spatio-temporal dynamics of natural systems and their populations. This is especially true for the transmission of common infectious diseases (such as influenza, measles, chickenpox and pertussis), and is of great relevance for host-parasite relationships in general. Here we gain further insights(More)
BACKGROUND Genetic studies have often produced conflicting results on the question of whether distant Jewish populations in different geographic locations share greater genetic similarity to each other or instead, to nearby non-Jewish populations. We perform a genome-wide population-genetic study of Jewish populations, analyzing 678 autosomal microsatellite(More)
Long-term spatio-temporal datasets of disease incidences have made it clear that many recurring epidemics, especially childhood infections, tend to synchronize in-phase across suburbs. In some special cases, epidemics between suburbs have been found to oscillate in an out-of-phase ('antiphase') relationship for lengthy periods. Here, we use modelling(More)
An ecological population model is presented for the purposes of exploring complex synchronization phenomena in biological systems. The model describes a three level predator–prey– resource system which oscillates with Uniform Phase evolution, yet has Chaotic Abundance levels or Amplitudes (UPCA). We investigate the phase synchronization of two nonidentical(More)
The analysis of real networks taken from the biological, social, and physical sciences often requires a carefully posed statistical null-hypothesis approach. One common method requires comparing real networks to an ensemble of random matrices that satisfy realistic constraints in which each different matrix member is equiprobable. We discuss existing(More)
We reformulate several recent analyses of infection processes on highly heterogeneous networks (e.g., scale-free networks) which conclude that diseases will spread and persist even for vanishingly small transmission probabilities. The results of these latter studies contrast with conventional epidemiological models where there are clear threshold effects,(More)
While a number of theories have been advanced to account for why musical consonance is related to simple frequency ratios, as yet there is no completely satisfying explanation. Here, we explore the theory of synchronization properties of ensembles of coupled neural oscillators to demonstrate why simple frequency ratios may have achieved a special status and(More)