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The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle is modeled as a low-order chaotic process driven by the seasonal cycle. A simple model suggests that the equatorial Pacific ocean-atmosphere oscillator can go into nonlinear resonance with the seasonal cycle and that with strong enough coupling between the ocean and the atmosphere, the system may become chaotic(More)
Population cycles that persist in time and are synchronized over space pervade ecological systems, but their underlying causes remain a long-standing enigma. Here we examine the synchronization of complex population oscillations in networks of model communities and in natural systems, where phenomena such as unusual '4- and 10-year cycle' of wildlife are(More)
While a number of theories have been advanced to account for why musical consonance is related to simple frequency ratios, as yet there is no completely satisfying explanation. Here, we explore the theory of synchronization properties of ensembles of coupled neural oscillators to demonstrate why simple frequency ratios may have achieved a special status and(More)
Coral reefs are generally considered to be the most biologically productive of all marine ecosystems, but in recent times these vulnerable aquatic resources have been subject to unusual degradation. The general decline in reefs has been greatly accelerated by mass bleaching in which corals whiten en masse and often fail to recover. Empirical evidence(More)
The isochore theory, proposed nearly three decades ago, depicts the mammalian genome as a mosaic of long, fairly homogeneous genomic regions that are characterized by their guanine and cytosine (GC) content. The human genome, for instance, was claimed to consist of five distinct isochore families: L1, L2, H1, H2, and H3, with GC contents of <37%, 37%-42%,(More)
BACKGROUND Genetic studies have often produced conflicting results on the question of whether distant Jewish populations in different geographic locations share greater genetic similarity to each other or instead, to nearby non-Jewish populations. We perform a genome-wide population-genetic study of Jewish populations, analyzing 678 autosomal microsatellite(More)
Empirical observations often indicate that complexity enhances stability, while most theoretical studies, such as May's (1972) classic paper, point to the opposite. Despite the wide generality of these latter theoretical analyses, our examination of the well-known competitive Lotka±Volterra system reveals that increasing complexity (measured in terms of(More)
BACKGROUND Transmission mechanisms of black-band disease (BBD) in coral reefs are poorly understood, although this disease is considered to be one of the most widespread and destructive coral infectious diseases. The major objective of this study was to assess transmission mechanisms of BBD in the field based on the spatio-temporal patterns of the disease.(More)
We study the global spatio-temporal patterns of influenza dynamics. This is achieved by analysing and modelling weekly laboratory confirmed cases of influenza A and B from 138 countries between January 2006 and January 2015. The data were obtained from FluNet, the surveillance network compiled by the the World Health Organization. We report a pattern of(More)