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Population cycles that persist in time and are synchronized over space pervade ecological systems, but their underlying causes remain a long-standing enigma. Here we examine the synchronization of complex population oscillations in networks of model communities and in natural systems, where phenomena such as unusual '4- and 10-year cycle' of wildlife are(More)
Recently, excitement has surrounded the application of null-hypothesis approaches for identifying evolutionary design principles in biological, technological, and social networks (1–13) and for classifying diverse networks into distinctive superfamilies (2). Here, we argue that the basic method suggested by Milo et al. (1, 2) often has limitations in(More)
Seasonality is a driving force that has a major effect on the spatio-temporal dynamics of natural systems and their populations. This is especially true for the transmission of common infectious diseases (such as influenza, measles, chickenpox and pertussis), and is of great relevance for host-parasite relationships in general. Here we gain further insights(More)
A simple model that describes the dynamics of nutrient-driven phytoplankton blooms is presented. Apart from complicated simulation studies, very few models reported in the literature have taken this "bottom-up" approach. Yet, as discussed and justified from a theoretical standpoint, many blooms are strongly controlled by nutrients rather than by higher(More)
BACKGROUND Transmission mechanisms of black-band disease (BBD) in coral reefs are poorly understood, although this disease is considered to be one of the most widespread and destructive coral infectious diseases. The major objective of this study was to assess transmission mechanisms of BBD in the field based on the spatio-temporal patterns of the disease.(More)
The isochore theory, proposed nearly three decades ago, depicts the mammalian genome as a mosaic of long, fairly homogeneous genomic regions that are characterized by their guanine and cytosine (GC) content. The human genome, for instance, was claimed to consist of five distinct isochore families: L1, L2, H1, H2, and H3, with GC contents of <37%, 37%-42%,(More)
Cooperation among genetically unrelated individuals is commonly explained by the potential for future reciprocity or by the risk of being punished by group members. However, unconditional altruism is more difficult to explain. We demonstrate that unconditional altruism can evolve as a costly signal of individual quality (i.e. a handicap) as a consequence of(More)
Many simple population models exhibit the period doubling route to chaos as a single parameter, commonly the growth rate, is increased. Here we examine the effect of an immigration process on such models and explain why in the case of one-dimensional ("single-humped") maps, immigration often tends to suppress chaos and stabilise equilibrium behaviour or(More)
The analysis of real networks taken from the biological, social, and physical sciences often requires a carefully posed statistical null-hypothesis approach. One common method requires comparing real networks to an ensemble of random matrices that satisfy realistic constraints in which each different matrix member is equiprobable. We discuss existing(More)