Levison Stanely Chiwaula

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BACKGROUND In sub-Saharan Africa antiretroviral therapy (ART) is being decentralized from tertiary/secondary care facilities to primary care. The Lablite project supports effective decentralization in 3 countries. It began with a cross-sectional survey to describe HIV and ART services. METHODS 81 purposively sampled health facilities in Malawi, Uganda and(More)
In July 2011, Malawi introduced an ambitious public health program known as "Option B+," which provides all HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women with lifelong combination antiretroviral therapy, regardless of clinical stage or CD4 count. Option B+ is expected to have benefits for HIV-infected women, their HIV-exposed infants, and their(More)
OBJECTIVES This paper sets out to estimate the cost of illicit financial flows (IFF) in terms of the amount of time it could take to reach the fourth Millennium Development Goal (MDG) in 34 African countries. DESIGN We have calculated the percentage increase in gross domestic product (GDP) if IFFs were curtailed using IFF/GDP ratios. We applied the income(More)
BACKGROUND An understanding of the complex relationship between health status and welfare is crucial for critical policy interventions. However, the focus of most policies in developing regions has been on current welfare to the neglect of forward-looking welfare analysis. The absence of adequate research in the area of future poverty or vulnerability to(More)
Background We conducted unlinked cross-sectional population-based surveys in Northern Uganda before and after antiretroviral therapy (ART) provision (including Option B+ [lifelong ART for pregnant/breast-feeding women]) at a local primary care facility (Lira Kato Health Centre [HC]). Prior to decentralisation, people travelled 56-76 km round-trip for ART;(More)
OBJECTIVE We aimed to quantify the relationship between national income and infant and under-five mortality in developing countries. DESIGN We conducted a systematic literature search of studies that examined the relationship between income and child mortality (infant and/or under-five mortality) and meta-analysed their results. SETTING Developing(More)
BACKGROUND Decentralization of ART services scaled up significantly with the country wide roll out of option B plus in Uganda. Little work has been undertaken to examine population level access to HIV care particularly in hard to reach areas in rural Africa. Most work on ART scale up has been done at health facility level which omits people not accessing(More)
BACKGROUND In 2011, Malawi launched Option B+, a program of universal antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment for pregnant and lactating women to optimize maternal health and prevent pediatric HIV infection. For optimal outcomes, women need to achieve HIVRNA suppression. We report 6-month HIVRNA suppression and HIV drug resistance in the PURE study. (More)
BACKGROUND Malawi introduced an ambitious public health program known as "Option B+" which provides all HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women with lifelong combination antiretroviral therapy, regardless of WHO clinical stage or CD4 cell count. The PMTCT Uptake and REtention (PURE) study aimed at evaluating the effect of peer-support on care-seeking(More)