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The rate of overflow and disappearance of dopamine from the extracellular fluid of the rat striatum has been measured during neuronal stimulation. Overflow of dopamine was induced by electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle with biphasic pulse trains. The instantaneous concentration of dopamine was measured with a Nafion-coated, carbon fiber(More)
Stimulated dopamine overflow has been measured with in vivo voltammetry in the caudate-putamen and nucleus accumbens. Overflow was induced by electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle with 120 1-ms, 300-microA, biphasic pulses at frequencies between 10 and 60 Hz. Overflow was measured with a Nafion-coated, carbon-fiber electrode used with(More)
Overflow of dopamine has been measured in the striatum of anesthetized rats with 60-Hz, 300-microA electrical stimulations of the medial forebrain bundle. Electrodes were placed in the region of the caudate-putamen or the nucleus accumbens. The elliptical electrodes were fabricated from carbon fibers and had a major radius of 35 microns. Overflow was(More)
SUMOylation, the covalent attachment of a member of the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) family of proteins to lysines in target substrates, is an essential post-translational modification in eukaryotes. Microbial manipulation of SUMOylation recently emerged as a key virulence strategy for viruses and facultative intracellular bacteria, the latter of(More)
Stimulated overflow of dopamine (DA) into the extracellular fluid of the rat caudate nucleus was measured with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. DA concentrations were sampled in less than 10 ms at 100-ms intervals with a Nafion-coated, carbon-fiber microelectrode. Overflow of DA was induced by electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle with(More)
Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen of humans and animals. The A. phagocytophium-occupied vacuole (ApV) is a critical host-pathogen interface. Here, we report that the intermediate filaments, keratin and vimentin, assemble on the ApV early and remain associated with the ApV throughout infection. Microtubules localize to(More)
Anaplasma phagocytophilum, a member of the family Anaplasmataceae and the obligate intracellular bacterium that causes granulocytic anaplasmosis, resides in a host cell-derived vacuole. Bacterial proteins that localize to the A. phagocytophilum-occupied vacuole membrane (AVM) are critical host-pathogen interfaces. Of the few bacterial AVM proteins that have(More)
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