Levi Hakwale Makala

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Serum samples from horses in the States of Sao Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil were examined for diagnosis of equine piroplasmosis by both the latex agglutination test (LAT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with recombinant antigens. Of the 47 samples analyzed, 38 (81%) and 42 (90%) samples were positive for B. equi infection and B.(More)
Tick-borne diseases occurring in Zambia are assuming more importance as they continue to be a major economic problem not only in Zambia, but in many parts of Eastern, Southern and Central Africa. The current control methods, which include the use of toxic acaricides to kill ticks, and the virulent sporozoite infection and treatment method have limitations.(More)
Cats are pivotal in the transmission of Toxoplasma gondii. To develop a sensitive and specific serodiagnostic method for feline toxoplasmosis, surface antigen 2 (SAG2) of T. gondii was expressed in Escherichia coli and its diagnostic potential evaluated in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The ELISA with recombinant SAG2 (rSAG2) was able to(More)
Dendritic cells uniquely orchestrate the delicate balance between T cell immunity and regulation and an imbalance favoring immunogenic rather than tolerogenic DC is believed to contribute to the development of autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes (T1D). In this study, we determined the frequencies of three blood DC subsets (pDC, mDC1 and mDC2) in 72(More)
We investigated the development of lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells in discrete Peyer's patches (PP) of the pig using immuno-histology and image analysis. In newborn piglets discrete PP were mainly populated by CD2+, CD3+ T cells, and major histocompatibility complex class II+ cells, many of which were of macrophage and dendritic cell lineage. Four days(More)
We have isolated dendritic cells (DC) from Peyer's patches (PP) of pig small intestine by mechanical tissue disruption followed by fractionation of isolated cells on metrizamide gradients. Characterisation was carried out using the following criteria: morphology; lysosomal enzyme synthesis; expression of membrane antigens; and capacity for antigen(More)
The prevalence of equine piroplasmosis in Xinjiang province, China, was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). A total of 70 serum samples were taken from horses pastured on three farms in western Xinjiang, and examined for diagnosis of equine Babesia equi (B. equi) infection and B. caballi infection by ELISAs using recombinant equi(More)
Recent studies have shown the feasibility of using Toxoplasma gondii as an expression system for heterologous protein. For better understanding of the mechanism of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) dependent immunity to T. gondii, the parasites were stably transfected with IFN-gamma gene, under control of the GRA1 promoter. Immunofluorescence analyses showed(More)
Following infection with Neospora caninum, BALB/c mice were shown to be resistant to an acute infection but developed a latent chronic infection. However, BALB/c background gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-deficient mice were sensitive to the acute infection. Since the immune response in IFN-gamma-deficient mice is scantly known, we examined the function of(More)
The dendritic cell (DC) network is a specialized system for presenting antigen to naive or quiescent T cells, and consequently plays a central role in the induction of T cell and B cell immunity in vivo. Despite considerable achievements in the last ten years, in our understanding of how DC induce and regulate immune responses, much remains to be learned(More)