Levi HC Makala

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Pathogen persistence in immune-competent hosts represents an immunological paradox. Increasing evidence suggests that some pathogens, such as, Leishmania major (L. major) have evolved strategies and mechanisms that actively suppress host adaptive immunity. If this notion is correct conventional vaccination therapies may be ineffective in enhancing host(More)
The Ufm1 conjugation system is an ubiquitin-like modification system that consists of Ufm1, Uba5 (E1), Ufc1 (E2), and less defined E3 ligase(s) and targets. The biological importance of this system is highlighted by its essential role in embryogenesis and erythroid development, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. UFBP1 (Ufm1 binding protein(More)
PURPOSE Sickle retinopathy (SR) is a major cause of vision loss in sickle cell disease (SCD). There are no strategies to prevent SR and treatments are extremely limited. The present study evaluated (1) the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell as a hemoglobin producer and novel cellular target for fetal hemoglobin (HbF) induction, and (2) monomethylfumarate(More)
Fetal hemoglobin (HbF) improves the clinical severity of sickle cell disease (SCD), therefore, research to identify HbF-inducing agents for treatment purposes is desirable. The focus of our study is to investigate the ability of FK228 analogues to induce HbF using a novel KU812 dual-luciferase reporter system. Molecular modeling studies showed that the(More)
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