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Cortical spreading depression (CSD) involves a slowly-propagating depolarization wave in the cortex, which can appear in numerous pathophysiological conditions, such as migraine with aura, stroke, and traumatic brain injury. Neurons and glial cells are also depolarized transiently during the phenomena. CSD is followed by a massive increase in glutamate(More)
AIMS Brain ischaemia models are essential to study the pathomechanisms of stroke. Our aim was to investigate the reliability and reproducibility of our novel focal ischaemia-reperfusion model. METHODS To induce a cortical transient ischaemic attack, we lifted the distal middle cerebral artery (MCA) with a special hook. The early changes after 2 × 15-min(More)
It is well known that traumatic or ischemic brain injury is followed by acute excitotoxicity caused by the presence of abnormally high glutamate (Glu) in brain fluids. It has recently been demonstrated that excess Glu can be eliminated from brain into blood following the intravenous administration of oxaloacetate (OxAc), which, by scavenging blood Glu,(More)
As a consequence of an ischemic episode, energy production is disturbed, leading to neuronal cell death. Despite intensive research, the quest for promising neuroprotective drugs has largely failed, not only because of ineffectiveness, but also because of serious side-effects and dosing difficulties. Acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) is an essential nutrient which(More)
Four-vessel occlusion (4VO), a frequently used model of global cerebral ischemia in rats, results in a dysfunction in wide brain areas, including the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. However, there are pronounced differences in response to global ischemia between the laboratory rat strains used in these studies. In the present work, the immediate acute(More)
Kynurenic acid (KYNA), a neuroactive metabolite of tryptophan that acts on different receptors (e.g. those of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and presynaptic α7 nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh)), exerts fundamentally antiglutamatergic effects. In view of its antiglutamatergic properties, an elevation of the KYNA level within the brain might result in(More)
Hypoxic circumstances result in functional and structural impairments of the brain. Oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) on hippocampal slices is a technique widely used to investigate the consequences of ischemic stroke and the potential neuroprotective effects of different drugs. Acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) is a naturally occurring substance in the body, and it(More)
During an ischemic event, the well-regulated glutamate (Glu) homeostasis is disturbed, which gives rise to extremely high levels of this excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain tissues. It was earlier reported that the administration of oxaloacetate (OxAc) as a Glu scavenger reduces the Glu level in the brain by enhancing the brain-to-blood Glu efflux.(More)
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