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Cortical spreading depression (CSD) involves a slowly-propagating depolarization wave in the cortex, which can appear in numerous pathophysiological conditions, such as migraine with aura, stroke, and traumatic brain injury. Neurons and glial cells are also depolarized transiently during the phenomena. CSD is followed by a massive increase in glutamate(More)
AIMS Brain ischaemia models are essential to study the pathomechanisms of stroke. Our aim was to investigate the reliability and reproducibility of our novel focal ischaemia-reperfusion model. METHODS To induce a cortical transient ischaemic attack, we lifted the distal middle cerebral artery (MCA) with a special hook. The early changes after 2 × 15-min(More)
As a consequence of an ischemic episode, energy production is disturbed, leading to neuronal cell death. Despite intensive research, the quest for promising neuroprotective drugs has largely failed, not only because of ineffectiveness, but also because of serious side-effects and dosing difficulties. Acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) is an essential nutrient which(More)
It is well known that traumatic or ischemic brain injury is followed by acute excitotoxicity caused by the presence of abnormally high glutamate (Glu) in brain fluids. It has recently been demonstrated that excess Glu can be eliminated from brain into blood following the intravenous administration of oxaloacetate (OxAc), which, by scavenging blood Glu,(More)
A high proportion of research relating to cerebral ischemia focuses on neuroprotection. The application of compounds normally present in the organism is popular, because they do not greatly influence the synaptic activity by receptor modulation, and can be administered without serious side effects. Oxaloacetate (OxAc) and acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) are such(More)
Four-vessel occlusion (4VO), a frequently used model of global cerebral ischemia in rats, results in a dysfunction in wide brain areas, including the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. However, there are pronounced differences in response to global ischemia between the laboratory rat strains used in these studies. In the present work, the immediate acute(More)
Since brain ischemia is one of the leading causes of adult disability and death, neuroprotection of the ischemic brain is of particular importance. Acute neuroprotective strategies usually have the aim of suppressing glutamate excitotoxicity and an excessive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor function. Clinically tolerated antagonists should antagonize an(More)
Kynurenic acid (KYNA), a neuroactive metabolite of tryptophan that acts on different receptors (e.g. those of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and presynaptic α7 nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh)), exerts fundamentally antiglutamatergic effects. In view of its antiglutamatergic properties, an elevation of the KYNA level within the brain might result in(More)
Core-shell nanoparticles (CSNPs) were developed to get over therapeutic amount of kynurenic acid (KYNA) across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as core for encapsulation of KYNA and the BSA/KYNA composite was finally encapsulated by poly(allylamine) hydrochloride (PAH) polymer as shell. In the interest of the optimization(More)