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In the past decade it became customary to relate the probability of appearance of extremely steep (the so-called freak, or rogue waves) to the value of the Benjamin-Feir Index (BFI) that represents the ratio of wave nonlinear-ity to the spectral width. This ratio appears naturally in the cubic Schrödinger equation that describes evolution of uni-directional(More)
We observe the propagation dynamics of surface gravity water waves, having an Airy function envelope, in both the linear and the nonlinear regimes. In the linear regime, the shape of the envelope is preserved while propagating in an 18-m water tank, despite the inherent dispersion of the wave packet. The Airy wave function can propagate at a velocity that(More)
A sequential model which describes the kinetic behavior of multilayer immobilized-enzyme filter reactors for systems obeying the Michaelis-Menten scheme and various types of inhibition by product and by substrate is proposed. The model was varified experimentaly using a single enzyme-filter-substrate system-urease bound to nylon-filter disks acting on(More)
—The problem of obtaining quantitative data on spatial ocean wave spectra from the images of the ocean surface by either regular SAR or along-track interferometric SAR (INSAR) is studied. The dominant mechanism which allows imaging of ocean waves by SAR/INSAR is the so-called velocity bunch-ing. This mechanism is essentially nonlinear. The theoretical(More)
Linear gravity water waves are highly dispersive; therefore, the spreading of initially short wave trains characterizes water surface waves, and is a universal property of a dispersive medium. Only if there is sufficient nonlinearity does this envelope admit solitary solutions which do not spread and remain in fixed forms. Here, in contrast to the nonlinear(More)
We demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally propagation dynamics of surface gravity water-wave pulses, having Hermite-Gauss envelopes. We show that these waves propagate self-similarly along an 18-m wave tank, preserving their general Hermite-Gauss envelopes in both the linear and the nonlinear regimes. The measured surface elevation wave groups(More)
Most operable Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) systems employ the fringe mode geometrical configuration with a counting type signal processor. The fringes are contained within an ellipsoid volume, which is commonly described as the sensing volume of the LDA. Generally, the dimensions of the focusing volume are determined from the waist diameter of the beams(More)
We study the general wave phenomenon of diffractive focusing from a single slit for two types of waves and demonstrate several properties of this effect. Whereas in the first situation, the envelope of a surface gravity water wave is modulated in time by a rectangular function, leading to temporal focusing, in the second example, surface plasmon polariton(More)
Urease was bound to commercially available nonwoven nylon fabric filters. Multilayer immobilized-enzyme filter reactors were constructed by packing varying numbers of urease-nylon filters in a column. Owing to the relatively open structure and high mechanical strength of the filter fabric, compaction and pressure drop effects were minimal. The reactors(More)