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Fumonisinmycotoxins are produced by Fusaria fungi that grow worldwide primarily on corn. Fumonisin B(1), the most predominant form in corn samples, is a renal carcinogen in male F344/N rats and a hepatocarcinogen in female B6C3F(1) mice when fed at concentrations higher than 50 ppm (70 micromol/kg) in the diet for 2 years. We sought to determine the(More)
Goldenseal has been used for the treatment of a wide variety of ailments including gastrointestinal disturbances, urinary tract disorders, and inflammation. The five major alkaloid constituents in goldenseal are berberine, palmatine, hydrastine, hydrastinine, and canadine. When goldenseal was evaluated by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) in the(More)
Ceramides are intermediates in the biosynthesis of membrane sphingolipids. These biomolecules are also important as second messengers in signal transduction pathways controlling cell growth. We have developed two reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography (RPHPLC) techniques for identification and quantification of ceramides from mammalian cells.(More)
Maedi and visna are, respectively, the pulmonary and neurological manifestations of slowly progressive infections of sheep caused by retroviruses of the lentivirus subfamily. Lentivirus infections are also persistent infections in which host defenses are generally not successful in eliminating the infectious agent because of restricted viral gene expression(More)
Tattooing is a popular cosmetic practice involving more than 45 million US citizens. Since the toxicology of tattoo inks and pigments used to formulate tattoo inks has not been reported, we studied the immunological impact of tattooing and determined recovery time from this trauma. SKH-1 hairless mice were tattooed using commercial tattoo inks or(More)
Tattooing has become a popular recreational practice among younger adults over the past decade. Although some of the pigments used in tattooing have been described, very little is known concerning the toxicology, phototoxicology or photochemistry of these pigments. Seven yellow tattoo inks were obtained from commercial sources and their pigments extracted,(More)
Fumonisin B1 stimulates apoptosis in a variety of cell types and tissues. We examined the role of sphingolipid changes in fumonisin B1-stimulated apoptosis. Sphinganine accumulated rapidly, sphingosine levels remained unchanged, and ceramides decreased during fumonisin B1 exposure. Increased DNA fragmentation, decreased viability, and apoptotic morphology(More)
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are a class of chemical carcinogens whose active metabolites form DNA adducts, resulting in specific mutational events. The tumor suppressor protein p53 is believed to play a pivotal role in the ability of cells to response to DNA damage, resulting in either cell cycle arrest in G1 or apoptosis under conditions of(More)
Sertraline is used for the treatment of depression, and is also used for the treatment of panic, obsessive-compulsive, and post-traumatic stress disorders. Previously, we have demonstrated that sertraline caused hepatic cytotoxicity, with mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis being underlying mechanisms. In this study, we used microarray and other(More)
Ginkgo biloba leaf extract has been shown to increase the incidence in liver tumors in mice in a 2-year bioassay conducted by the National Toxicology Program. In this study, the DNA damaging effects of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract and many of its constituents were evaluated in human hepatic HepG2 cells and the underlying mechanism was determined. A molecular(More)