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Lung sensory receptors with afferent fibers coursing in the vagus nerves are broadly divided into three groups: slowly (SAR) and rapidly (RAR) adapting stretch receptors and bronchopulmonary C fibers. Central terminations of each group are found in largely nonoverlapping regions of the caudal half of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). Second order(More)
RATIONALE Studies of hypoglossal (XII) motoneurons that innervate the genioglossus muscle, an upper airway dilator, suggested that the suppression of upper airway motor tone during REM sleep is caused by withdrawal of excitation mediated by norepinephrine and serotonin. OBJECTIVES Our objectives were to determine whether antagonism of aminergic receptors(More)
Since the early '60s, injections of a broad-spectrum muscarinic cholinergic agonist, carbachol, into the medial pontine reticular formation (mPRF) of cats have been extensively used as a tool with which to study the neural mechanisms of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. During the last decade, new carbachol models of REM sleep were introduced, including(More)
1. The isolated brainstem of larval Rana catesbeiana maintained in vitro generates neural bursts that correspond to the lung and gill ventilatory activity generated in the intact specimen. To investigate the role of chloride channel-dependent inhibitory mechanisms mediated by GABA(A) and/or glycine receptors on fictive lung and gill ventilation, we(More)
The morphology of midlumbar interneurones with peripheral input from group II muscle afferents was analysed after intracellular injection of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Twenty-three interneurones were stained intrasomatically and five others intra-axonally. The majority (10 of 13) of interneurones located in lamina VII (intermediate zone and ventral horn(More)
The A5 noradrenergic neurons are considered important for cardiorespiratory regulation. We hypothesized that A5 cells are silenced during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, thereby contributing to cardiorespiratory changes and suppression of hypoglossal (XII) motoneuronal activity. We used an anesthetized, paralyzed, and artificially ventilated rat in which(More)
Recently, we reported that the suppression of hypoglossal (XII) motoneuronal activity that occurs during the carbachol-induced, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep-like state is abolished by the microinjection into the XII nucleus of a drug mix that antagonizes aminergic excitation and amino acid-mediated inhibition (prazosin, methysergide, bicuculline and(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES Two pontine reticular regions are implicated in cholinergic triggering of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep: the dorsomedial tegmental region and the ventral nucleus pontis oralis. We previously determined that, in urethane-anesthetized rats, microinjections of a cholinergic agonist, carbachol, into the dorsal region produce REM sleep-like(More)
We connected dislocation-based atomic-scale and continuum models of plasticity in crystalline solids through numerical simulations of dislocation intersections in face-centered cubic crystals. The results contradict the traditional assumption that strain hardening is governed by the formation of sessile junctions between dislocations. The interaction(More)