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Lung sensory receptors with afferent fibers coursing in the vagus nerves are broadly divided into three groups: slowly (SAR) and rapidly (RAR) adapting stretch receptors and bronchopulmonary C fibers. Central terminations of each group are found in largely nonoverlapping regions of the caudal half of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). Second order(More)
RATIONALE Studies of hypoglossal (XII) motoneurons that innervate the genioglossus muscle, an upper airway dilator, suggested that the suppression of upper airway motor tone during REM sleep is caused by withdrawal of excitation mediated by norepinephrine and serotonin. OBJECTIVES Our objectives were to determine whether antagonism of aminergic receptors(More)
  • L Kubin
  • 2001
Since the early '60s, injections of a broad-spectrum muscarinic cholinergic agonist, carbachol, into the medial pontine reticular formation (mPRF) of cats have been extensively used as a tool with which to study the neural mechanisms of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. During the last decade, new carbachol models of REM sleep were introduced, including(More)
Recently, we reported that the suppression of hypoglossal (XII) motoneuronal activity that occurs during the carbachol-induced, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep-like state is abolished by the microinjection into the XII nucleus of a drug mix that antagonizes aminergic excitation and amino acid-mediated inhibition (prazosin, methysergide, bicuculline and(More)
1. The isolated brainstem of larval Rana catesbeiana maintained in vitro generates neural bursts that correspond to the lung and gill ventilatory activity generated in the intact specimen. To investigate the role of chloride channel-dependent inhibitory mechanisms mediated by GABA(A) and/or glycine receptors on fictive lung and gill ventilation, we(More)
In individuals with a narrow or collapsible upper airway, sleep-related hypotonia of upper airway muscles leads to recurrent airway obstructions. Brainstem noradrenergic neurons reduce their activity during slow-wave sleep and become silent during rapid eye movement sleep; this may cause state-dependent changes in the motor output and reflexes. The loss of(More)
The A5 noradrenergic neurons are considered important for cardiorespiratory regulation. We hypothesized that A5 cells are silenced during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, thereby contributing to cardiorespiratory changes and suppression of hypoglossal (XII) motoneuronal activity. We used an anesthetized, paralyzed, and artificially ventilated rat in which(More)
The morphology of midlumbar interneurones with peripheral input from group II muscle afferents was analysed after intracellular injection of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Twenty-three interneurones were stained intrasomatically and five others intra-axonally. The majority (10 of 13) of interneurones located in lamina VII (intermediate zone and ventral horn(More)
It is hypothesized that the suppression of motor activity (atonia) that occurs during REM sleep is caused by the combined inhibition of motoneurons by glycine or GABA and withdrawal of excitation mediated by serotonin and norepinephrine. However, it is not known whether these mechanisms can fully account for the atonia. In urethane-anesthetized, paralyzed(More)