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Although the molecular, cellular, and systems mechanisms required for initial memory processing have been intensively investigated, those underlying permanent memory storage remain elusive. We present neuroanatomical, pharmacological, and genetic results demonstrating that the anterior cingulate cortex plays a critical role in remote memory for contextual(More)
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are extracellular proteases that have well recognized roles in cell signaling and remodeling in many tissues. In the brain, their activation and function are customarily associated with injury or pathology. Here, we demonstrate a novel role for MMP-9 in hippocampal synaptic physiology, plasticity, and memory. MMP-9 protein(More)
Neurons of adult brain are able to remodel their synaptic connections in response to various stimuli. Modifications of the peridendritic environment, including the extracellular matrix, are likely to play a role during synapse remodeling. Proteolytic disassembly of ECM is a complex process using the regulated actions of specific extracellular proteinases.(More)
Zif268 is a transcription regulatory protein, the product of an immediate early gene. Zif268 was originally described as inducible in cell cultures; however, it was later shown to be activated by a variety of stimuli, including ongoing synaptic activity in the adult brain. Recently, mice with experimentally mutated zif268 gene have been obtained and(More)
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a devastating disease in which aberrant synaptic plasticity plays a major role. We identify matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 as a novel synaptic enzyme and a key pathogenic factor in two animal models of TLE: kainate-evoked epilepsy and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling-induced epilepsy. Notably, we show that the sensitivity(More)
The amygdala is a heterogeneous brain structure implicated in processing of emotions and storing the emotional aspects of memories. Gene activity markers such as c-Fos have been shown to reflect both neuronal activation and neuronal plasticity. Herein, we analyze the expression patterns of gene activity markers in the amygdala in response to either(More)
Dicer-dependent noncoding RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs), play an important role in a modulation of translation of mRNA transcripts necessary for differentiation in many cell types. In vivo experiments using cell type-specific Dicer1 gene inactivation in neurons showed its essential role for neuronal development and survival. However, little is known(More)
Members of the metzincin family of metalloproteinases have long been considered merely degradative enzymes for extracellular matrix molecules. Recently, however, there has been growing appreciation for these proteinases and their endogenous inhibitors, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), as fine modulators of nervous system physiology and(More)
The expression of immediate-early genes that code for transcription factors has been extensively studied in the brain with regard to imaging functional activity. The components of the AP-1 transcription factor--in particular, c-Fos--and Zif268 have been widely used for this purpose. However, the precise details by which they are induced after synaptic(More)
The expression of a novel calcyclin (S100A6) binding protein (CacyBP) in different rat tissues was determined by Western and Northern blotting. Polyclonal antibodies against recombinant CacyBP purified from E. coli exhibited the highest reaction in the brain and weaker reaction in liver, spleen, and stomach. CacyBP immunoreactivity was also detected in lung(More)