Leslie Z Benet

Learn More
Membrane transporters can be major determinants of the pharmacokinetic, safety and efficacy profiles of drugs. This presents several key questions for drug development, including which transporters are clinically important in drug absorption and disposition, and which in vitro methods are suitable for studying drug interactions with these transporters. In(More)
The Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) was developed to allow prediction of in vivo pharmacokinetic performance of drug products from measurements of permeability (determined as the extent of oral absorption) and solubility. Here, we suggest that a modified version of such a classification system may be useful in predicting overall drug(More)
The inhibition of hepatic uptake transporters, such as OATP1B1, on the pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin is unknown. Here, we investigate the effect of a model hepatic transporter inhibitor, rifampin, on the kinetics of atorvastatin and its metabolites in humans. The inhibitory effect of a single rifampin dose on atorvastatin kinetics was studied in 11(More)
Here, we compile the Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System (BDDCS) classification for 927 drugs, which include 30 active metabolites. Of the 897 parent drugs, 78.8% (707) are administered orally. Where the lowest measured solubility is found, this value is reported for 72.7% (513) of these orally administered drugs and a dose number is(More)
In an in vitro study, we compared the cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent metabolism and drug interactions of the acid and lactone forms of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase inhibitor atorvastatin. Metabolism of atorvastatin acid and lactone by human liver microsomes resulted in para-hydroxy and ortho-hydroxy metabolites. Both substrates were(More)
Intestinal phase I metabolism and active extrusion of absorbed drug have recently been recognised as major determinants of oral bioavailability. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A, the major phase I drug metabolising enzyme in humans, and the multidrug efflux pump, P-glycoprotein, are present at high levels in the villus tip of enterocytes in the gastrointestinal(More)
Drug efflux by intestinal P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is known to decrease the oral bioavailability of many CYP3A4 substrates. We hypothesized that the interplay occurring between P-gp and CYP3A4 at the apical membrane would increase the opportunity for drug metabolism. To define the roles of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and CYP3A4 in controlling the extent of(More)
Renal failure not only alters the renal elimination, but also the non-renal disposition of drugs that are extensively metabolized by the liver. Although reduced metabolic enzyme activity in some cases can be responsible for the reduced drug clearance, alterations in the transporter systems may also be involved in the process. With the development of renal(More)